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std.algorithm.mutation

This is a submodule of std.algorithm. It contains generic mutation algorithms.
Cheat Sheet
Function Name Description
bringToFront If a = [1, 2, 3] and b = [4, 5, 6, 7], bringToFront(a, b) leaves a = [4, 5, 6] and b = [7, 1, 2, 3].
copy Copies a range to another. If a = [1, 2, 3] and b = new int[5], then copy(a, b) leaves b = [1, 2, 3, 0, 0] and returns b[3 .. $].
fill Fills a range with a pattern, e.g., if a = new int[3], then fill(a, 4) leaves a = [4, 4, 4] and fill(a, [3, 4]) leaves a = [3, 4, 3].
initializeAll If a = [1.2, 3.4], then initializeAll(a) leaves a = [double.init, double.init].
move move(a, b) moves a into b. move(a) reads a destructively when necessary.
moveAll Moves all elements from one range to another.
moveSome Moves as many elements as possible from one range to another.
remove Removes elements from a range in-place, and returns the shortened range.
reverse If a = [1, 2, 3], reverse(a) changes it to [3, 2, 1].
strip Strips all leading and trailing elements equal to a value, or that satisfy a predicate. If a = [1, 1, 0, 1, 1], then strip(a, 1) and strip!(e => e == 1)(a) returns [0].
stripLeft Strips all leading elements equal to a value, or that satisfy a predicate. If a = [1, 1, 0, 1, 1], then stripLeft(a, 1) and stripLeft!(e => e == 1)(a) returns [0, 1, 1].
stripRight Strips all trailing elements equal to a value, or that satisfy a predicate. If a = [1, 1, 0, 1, 1], then stripRight(a, 1) and stripRight!(e => e == 1)(a) returns [1, 1, 0].
swap Swaps two values.
swapAt Swaps two values by indices.
swapRanges Swaps all elements of two ranges.
uninitializedFill Fills a range (assumed uninitialized) with a value.
size_t bringToFront(InputRange, ForwardRange)(InputRange front, ForwardRange back)
if (isInputRange!InputRange && isForwardRange!ForwardRange);
The bringToFront function has considerable flexibility and usefulness. It can rotate elements in one buffer left or right, swap buffers of equal length, and even move elements across disjoint buffers of different types and different lengths.
bringToFront takes two ranges front and back, which may be of different types. Considering the concatenation of front and back one unified range, bringToFront rotates that unified range such that all elements in back are brought to the beginning of the unified range. The relative ordering of elements in front and back, respectively, remains unchanged.
The bringToFront function treats strings at the code unit level and it is not concerned with Unicode character integrity. bringToFront is designed as a function for moving elements in ranges, not as a string function.
Performs Ο(max(front.length, back.length)) evaluations of swap.

Preconditions: Either front and back are disjoint, or back is reachable from front and front is not reachable from back.

Parameters:
InputRange front an input range
ForwardRange back a forward range
Returns:
The number of elements brought to the front, i.e., the length of back.
See Also:
TargetRange copy(SourceRange, TargetRange)(SourceRange source, TargetRange target)
if (areCopyCompatibleArrays!(SourceRange, TargetRange));

TargetRange copy(SourceRange, TargetRange)(SourceRange source, TargetRange target)
if (!areCopyCompatibleArrays!(SourceRange, TargetRange) && isInputRange!SourceRange && isOutputRange!(TargetRange, ElementType!SourceRange));
Copies the content of source into target and returns the remaining (unfilled) part of target.

Preconditions: target shall have enough room to accommodate the entirety of source.

Parameters:
SourceRange source an input range
TargetRange target an output range
Returns:
The unfilled part of target
See Also:
Examples:
int[] a = [ 1, 5 ];
int[] b = [ 9, 8 ];
int[] buf = new int[](a.length + b.length + 10);
auto rem = a.copy(buf);    // copy a into buf
rem = b.copy(rem);         // copy b into remainder of buf
writeln(buf[0 .. a.length + b.length]); // [1, 5, 9, 8]
assert(rem.length == 10);   // unused slots in buf
Examples:
As long as the target range elements support assignment from source range elements, different types of ranges are accepted:
float[] src = [ 1.0f, 5 ];
double[] dest = new double[src.length];
src.copy(dest);
Examples:
To copy at most n elements from a range, you may want to use std.range.take:
import std.range;
int[] src = [ 1, 5, 8, 9, 10 ];
auto dest = new int[](3);
src.take(dest.length).copy(dest);
writeln(dest); // [1, 5, 8]
Examples:
To copy just those elements from a range that satisfy a predicate, use filter:
import std.algorithm.iteration : filter;
int[] src = [ 1, 5, 8, 9, 10, 1, 2, 0 ];
auto dest = new int[src.length];
auto rem = src
    .filter!(a => (a & 1) == 1)
    .copy(dest);
writeln(dest[0 .. $ - rem.length]); // [1, 5, 9, 1]
Examples:
std.range.retro can be used to achieve behavior similar to STL's copy_backward':
import std.algorithm, std.range;
int[] src = [1, 2, 4];
int[] dest = [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
src.retro.copy(dest.retro);
writeln(dest); // [0, 0, 1, 2, 4]
void fill(Range, Value)(Range range, Value value)
if (isInputRange!Range && is(typeof(range.front = value)));
Assigns value to each element of input range range.
Parameters:
Range range An input range that exposes references to its elements and has assignable elements
Value value Assigned to each element of range
Examples:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ];
fill(a, 5);
writeln(a); // [5, 5, 5, 5]
void fill(InputRange, ForwardRange)(InputRange range, ForwardRange filler)
if (isInputRange!InputRange && (isForwardRange!ForwardRange || isInputRange!ForwardRange && isInfinite!ForwardRange) && is(typeof(InputRange.init.front = ForwardRange.init.front)));
Fills range with a pattern copied from filler. The length of range does not have to be a multiple of the length of filler. If filler is empty, an exception is thrown.
Parameters:
InputRange range An input range that exposes references to its elements and has assignable elements.
ForwardRange filler The forward range representing the fill pattern.
Examples:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
int[] b = [ 8, 9 ];
fill(a, b);
writeln(a); // [8, 9, 8, 9, 8]
void initializeAll(Range)(Range range)
if (isInputRange!Range && hasLvalueElements!Range && hasAssignableElements!Range);

void initializeAll(Range)(Range range)
if (is(Range == char[]) || is(Range == wchar[]));
Initializes all elements of range with their .init value. Assumes that the elements of the range are uninitialized.
Parameters:
Range range An input range that exposes references to its elements and has assignable elements
Examples:
import core.stdc.stdlib : malloc, free;

struct S
{
    int a = 10;
}

auto s = (cast(S*) malloc(5 * S.sizeof))[0 .. 5];
initializeAll(s);
writeln(s); // [S(10), S(10), S(10), S(10), S(10)]

scope(exit) free(s.ptr);
void move(T)(ref T source, ref T target);

T move(T)(ref T source);
Moves source into target, via a destructive copy when necessary.
If T is a struct with a destructor or postblit defined, source is reset to its .init value after it is moved into target, otherwise it is left unchanged.

Preconditions: If source has internal pointers that point to itself, it cannot be moved, and will trigger an assertion failure.

Parameters:
T source Data to copy.
T target Where to copy into. The destructor, if any, is invoked before the copy is performed.
Examples:
For non-struct types, move just performs target = source:
Object obj1 = new Object;
Object obj2 = obj1;
Object obj3;

move(obj2, obj3);
assert(obj3 is obj1);
// obj2 unchanged
assert(obj2 is obj1);
Examples:
// Structs without destructors are simply copied
struct S1
{
    int a = 1;
    int b = 2;
}
S1 s11 = { 10, 11 };
S1 s12;

move(s11, s12);

writeln(s12); // S1(10, 11)
writeln(s11); // s12

// But structs with destructors or postblits are reset to their .init value
// after copying to the target.
struct S2
{
    int a = 1;
    int b = 2;

    ~this() pure nothrow @safe @nogc { }
}
S2 s21 = { 3, 4 };
S2 s22;

move(s21, s22);

writeln(s21); // S2(1, 2)
writeln(s22); // S2(3, 4)
Examples:
Non-copyable structs can still be moved:
struct S
{
    @disable this(this);
    ~this() pure nothrow @safe @nogc {}
}
S s1;
S s2 = move(s1);
@system void moveEmplace(T)(ref T source, ref T target);
Similar to move but assumes target is uninitialized. This is more efficient because source can be blitted over target without destroying or initializing it first.
Parameters:
T source value to be moved into target
T target uninitialized value to be filled by source
Examples:
static struct Foo
{
pure nothrow @nogc:
    this(int* ptr) { _ptr = ptr; }
    ~this() { if (_ptr) ++*_ptr; }
    int* _ptr;
}

int val;
Foo foo1 = void; // uninitialized
auto foo2 = Foo(&val); // initialized
assert(foo2._ptr is &val);

// Using `move(foo2, foo1)` would have an undefined effect because it would destroy
// the uninitialized foo1.
// moveEmplace directly overwrites foo1 without destroying or initializing it first.
moveEmplace(foo2, foo1);
assert(foo1._ptr is &val);
assert(foo2._ptr is null);
writeln(val); // 0
InputRange2 moveAll(InputRange1, InputRange2)(InputRange1 src, InputRange2 tgt)
if (isInputRange!InputRange1 && isInputRange!InputRange2 && is(typeof(move(src.front, tgt.front))));
Calls move(a, b) for each element a in src and the corresponding element b in tgt, in increasing order.

Preconditions: walkLength(src) <= walkLength(tgt). This precondition will be asserted. If you cannot ensure there is enough room in tgt to accommodate all of src use moveSome instead.

Parameters:
InputRange1 src An input range with movable elements.
InputRange2 tgt An input range with elements that elements from src can be moved into.
Returns:
The leftover portion of tgt after all elements from src have been moved.
Examples:
int[3] a = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
int[5] b;
assert(moveAll(a[], b[]) is b[3 .. $]);
writeln(a[]); // b[0 .. 3]
int[3] cmp = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
writeln(a[]); // cmp[]
@system InputRange2 moveEmplaceAll(InputRange1, InputRange2)(InputRange1 src, InputRange2 tgt)
if (isInputRange!InputRange1 && isInputRange!InputRange2 && is(typeof(moveEmplace(src.front, tgt.front))));
Similar to moveAll but assumes all elements in tgt are uninitialized. Uses moveEmplace to move elements from src over elements from tgt.
Examples:
static struct Foo
{
    ~this() pure nothrow @nogc { if (_ptr) ++*_ptr; }
    int* _ptr;
}
int[3] refs = [0, 1, 2];
Foo[3] src = [Foo(&refs[0]), Foo(&refs[1]), Foo(&refs[2])];
Foo[5] dst = void;

auto tail = moveEmplaceAll(src[], dst[]); // move 3 value from src over dst
assert(tail.length == 2); // returns remaining uninitialized values
initializeAll(tail);

import std.algorithm.searching : all;
assert(src[].all!(e => e._ptr is null));
assert(dst[0 .. 3].all!(e => e._ptr !is null));
Tuple!(InputRange1, InputRange2) moveSome(InputRange1, InputRange2)(InputRange1 src, InputRange2 tgt)
if (isInputRange!InputRange1 && isInputRange!InputRange2 && is(typeof(move(src.front, tgt.front))));
Calls move(a, b) for each element a in src and the corresponding element b in tgt, in increasing order, stopping when either range has been exhausted.
Parameters:
InputRange1 src An input range with movable elements.
InputRange2 tgt An input range with elements that elements from src can be moved into.
Returns:
The leftover portions of the two ranges after one or the other of the ranges have been exhausted.
Examples:
int[5] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
int[3] b;
assert(moveSome(a[], b[])[0] is a[3 .. $]);
writeln(a[0 .. 3]); // b
writeln(a); // [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
@system Tuple!(InputRange1, InputRange2) moveEmplaceSome(InputRange1, InputRange2)(InputRange1 src, InputRange2 tgt)
if (isInputRange!InputRange1 && isInputRange!InputRange2 && is(typeof(move(src.front, tgt.front))));
Same as moveSome but assumes all elements in tgt are uninitialized. Uses moveEmplace to move elements from src over elements from tgt.
Examples:
static struct Foo
{
    ~this() pure nothrow @nogc { if (_ptr) ++*_ptr; }
    int* _ptr;
}
int[4] refs = [0, 1, 2, 3];
Foo[4] src = [Foo(&refs[0]), Foo(&refs[1]), Foo(&refs[2]), Foo(&refs[3])];
Foo[3] dst = void;

auto res = moveEmplaceSome(src[], dst[]);

import std.algorithm.searching : all;
assert(src[0 .. 3].all!(e => e._ptr is null));
assert(src[3]._ptr !is null);
assert(dst[].all!(e => e._ptr !is null));
enum SwapStrategy: int;
Defines the swapping strategy for algorithms that need to swap elements in a range (such as partition and sort). The strategy concerns the swapping of elements that are not the core concern of the algorithm. For example, consider an algorithm that sorts [ "abc", "b", "aBc" ] according to toUpper(a) < toUpper(b). That algorithm might choose to swap the two equivalent strings "abc" and "aBc". That does not affect the sorting since both [ "abc", "aBc", "b" ] and [ "aBc", "abc", "b" ] are valid outcomes.
Some situations require that the algorithm must NOT ever change the relative ordering of equivalent elements (in the example above, only [ "abc", "aBc", "b" ] would be the correct result). Such algorithms are called stable. If the ordering algorithm may swap equivalent elements discretionarily, the ordering is called unstable.
Yet another class of algorithms may choose an intermediate tradeoff by being stable only on a well-defined subrange of the range. There is no established terminology for such behavior; this library calls it semistable.
Generally, the stable ordering strategy may be more costly in time and/or space than the other two because it imposes additional constraints. Similarly, semistable may be costlier than unstable. As (semi-)stability is not needed very often, the ordering algorithms in this module parameterized by SwapStrategy all choose SwapStrategy.unstable as the default.
unstable
Allows freely swapping of elements as long as the output satisfies the algorithm's requirements.
semistable
In algorithms partitioning ranges in two, preserve relative ordering of elements only to the left of the partition point.
stable
Preserve the relative ordering of elements to the largest extent allowed by the algorithm's requirements.
Range remove(SwapStrategy s = SwapStrategy.stable, Range, Offset...)(Range range, Offset offset)
if (s != SwapStrategy.stable && isBidirectionalRange!Range && hasLvalueElements!Range && hasLength!Range && Offset.length >= 1);

Range remove(SwapStrategy s = SwapStrategy.stable, Range, Offset...)(Range range, Offset offset)
if (s == SwapStrategy.stable && isBidirectionalRange!Range && hasLvalueElements!Range && Offset.length >= 1);
Eliminates elements at given offsets from range and returns the shortened range. In the simplest call, one element is removed.
int[] a = [ 3, 5, 7, 8 ];
assert(remove(a, 1) == [ 3, 7, 8 ]);
assert(a == [ 3, 7, 8, 8 ]);
In the case above the element at offset 1 is removed and remove returns the range smaller by one element. The original array has remained of the same length because all functions in std.algorithm only change content, not topology. The value 8 is repeated because move was invoked to move elements around and on integers move simply copies the source to the destination. To replace a with the effect of the removal, simply assign a = remove(a, 1). The slice will be rebound to the shorter array and the operation completes with maximal efficiency.
Multiple indices can be passed into remove. In that case, elements at the respective indices are all removed. The indices must be passed in increasing order, otherwise an exception occurs.
int[] a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ];
assert(remove(a, 1, 3, 5) ==
    [ 0, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ]);
(Note how all indices refer to slots in the original array, not in the array as it is being progressively shortened.) Finally, any combination of integral offsets and tuples composed of two integral offsets can be passed in.
int[] a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ];
assert(remove(a, 1, tuple(3, 5), 9) == [ 0, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10 ]);
In this case, the slots at positions 1, 3, 4, and 9 are removed from the array. The tuple passes in a range closed to the left and open to the right (consistent with built-in slices), e.g. tuple(3, 5) means indices 3 and 4 but not 5.
If the need is to remove some elements in the range but the order of the remaining elements does not have to be preserved, you may want to pass SwapStrategy.unstable to remove.
int[] a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3 ];
assert(remove!(SwapStrategy.unstable)(a, 1) == [ 0, 3, 2 ]);
In the case above, the element at slot 1 is removed, but replaced with the last element of the range. Taking advantage of the relaxation of the stability requirement, remove moved elements from the end of the array over the slots to be removed. This way there is less data movement to be done which improves the execution time of the function.
The function remove works on bidirectional ranges that have assignable lvalue elements. The moving strategy is (listed from fastest to slowest):
  • If s == SwapStrategy.unstable && isRandomAccessRange!Range && hasLength!Range && hasLvalueElements!Range, then elements are moved from the end of the range into the slots to be filled. In this case, the absolute minimum of moves is performed.
  • Otherwise, if s == SwapStrategy.unstable && isBidirectionalRange!Range && hasLength!Range && hasLvalueElements!Range, then elements are still moved from the end of the range, but time is spent on advancing between slots by repeated calls to range.popFront.
  • Otherwise, elements are moved incrementally towards the front of range; a given element is never moved several times, but more elements are moved than in the previous cases.
Parameters:
s a SwapStrategy to determine if the original order needs to be preserved
Range range a bidirectional range with a length member
Offset offset which element(s) to remove
Returns:
a range containing all of the elements of range with offset removed
Examples:
import std.typecons : tuple;

auto a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
writeln(remove!(SwapStrategy.stable)(a, 1)); // [0, 2, 3, 4, 5]
a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
writeln(remove!(SwapStrategy.stable)(a, 1, 3)); // [0, 2, 4, 5]
a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
writeln(remove!(SwapStrategy.stable)(a, 1, tuple(3, 6))); // [0, 2]

a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
writeln(remove!(SwapStrategy.unstable)(a, 1)); // [0, 5, 2, 3, 4]
a = [ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
writeln(remove!(SwapStrategy.unstable)(a, tuple(1, 4))); // [0, 5, 4]
Range remove(alias pred, SwapStrategy s = SwapStrategy.stable, Range)(Range range)
if (isBidirectionalRange!Range && hasLvalueElements!Range);
Reduces the length of the bidirectional range range by removing elements that satisfy pred. If s = SwapStrategy.unstable, elements are moved from the right end of the range over the elements to eliminate. If s = SwapStrategy.stable (the default), elements are moved progressively to front such that their relative order is preserved. Returns the filtered range.
Parameters:
Range range a bidirectional ranges with lvalue elements
Returns:
the range with all of the elements where pred is true removed
Examples:
static immutable base = [1, 2, 3, 2, 4, 2, 5, 2];

int[] arr = base[].dup;

// using a string-based predicate
writeln(remove!("a == 2")(arr)); // [1, 3, 4, 5]

// The original array contents have been modified,
// so we need to reset it to its original state.
// The length is unmodified however.
arr[] = base[];

// using a lambda predicate
writeln(remove!(a => a == 2)(arr)); // [1, 3, 4, 5]
void reverse(Range)(Range r)
if (isBidirectionalRange!Range && !isRandomAccessRange!Range && hasSwappableElements!Range);

void reverse(Range)(Range r)
if (isRandomAccessRange!Range && hasLength!Range);
Reverses r in-place. Performs r.length / 2 evaluations of swap.
Parameters:
Range r a bidirectional range with swappable elements or a random access range with a length member
See Also:
Examples:
int[] arr = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
reverse(arr);
writeln(arr); // [3, 2, 1]
void reverse(Char)(Char[] s)
if (isNarrowString!(Char[]) && !is(Char == const) && !is(Char == immutable));
Reverses r in-place, where r is a narrow string (having elements of type char or wchar). UTF sequences consisting of multiple code units are preserved properly.
Parameters:
Char[] s a narrow string
Bugs:
When passing a sting with unicode modifiers on characters, such as \u0301, this function will not properly keep the position of the modifier. For example, reversing ba\u0301d ("bád") will result in d\u0301ab ("d́ab") instead of da\u0301b ("dáb").
Examples:
char[] arr = "hello\U00010143\u0100\U00010143".dup;
reverse(arr);
writeln(arr); // "\U00010143\u0100\U00010143olleh"
Range strip(Range, E)(Range range, E element)
if (isBidirectionalRange!Range && is(typeof(range.front == element) : bool));

Range strip(alias pred, Range)(Range range)
if (isBidirectionalRange!Range && is(typeof(pred(range.back)) : bool));

Range stripLeft(Range, E)(Range range, E element)
if (isInputRange!Range && is(typeof(range.front == element) : bool));

Range stripLeft(alias pred, Range)(Range range)
if (isInputRange!Range && is(typeof(pred(range.front)) : bool));

Range stripRight(Range, E)(Range range, E element)
if (isBidirectionalRange!Range && is(typeof(range.back == element) : bool));

Range stripRight(alias pred, Range)(Range range)
if (isBidirectionalRange!Range && is(typeof(pred(range.back)) : bool));
The strip group of functions allow stripping of either leading, trailing, or both leading and trailing elements.
The stripLeft function will strip the front of the range, the stripRight function will strip the back of the range, while the strip function will strip both the front and back of the range.
Note that the strip and stripRight functions require the range to be a BidirectionalRange range.
All of these functions come in two varieties: one takes a target element, where the range will be stripped as long as this element can be found. The other takes a lambda predicate, where the range will be stripped as long as the predicate returns true.
Parameters:
Range range a bidirectional or input range
E element the elements to remove
Returns:
a Range with all of range except element at the start and end
Examples:
Strip leading and trailing elements equal to the target element.
writeln("  foobar  ".strip(' ')); // "foobar"
writeln("00223.444500".strip('0')); // "223.4445"
writeln("ëëêéüŗōpéêëë".strip('ë')); // "êéüŗōpéê"
writeln([1, 1, 0, 1, 1].strip(1)); // [0]
writeln([0.0, 0.01, 0.01, 0.0].strip(0).length); // 2
Examples:
Strip leading and trailing elements while the predicate returns true.
writeln("  foobar  ".strip!(a => a == ' ')()); // "foobar"
writeln("00223.444500".strip!(a => a == '0')()); // "223.4445"
writeln("ëëêéüŗōpéêëë".strip!(a => a == 'ë')()); // "êéüŗōpéê"
writeln([1, 1, 0, 1, 1].strip!(a => a == 1)()); // [0]
writeln([0.0, 0.01, 0.5, 0.6, 0.01, 0.0].strip!(a => a < 0.4)().length); // 2
Examples:
Strip leading elements equal to the target element.
writeln("  foobar  ".stripLeft(' ')); // "foobar  "
writeln("00223.444500".stripLeft('0')); // "223.444500"
writeln("ůůűniçodêéé".stripLeft('ů')); // "űniçodêéé"
writeln([1, 1, 0, 1, 1].stripLeft(1)); // [0, 1, 1]
writeln([0.0, 0.01, 0.01, 0.0].stripLeft(0).length); // 3
Examples:
Strip leading elements while the predicate returns true.
writeln("  foobar  ".stripLeft!(a => a == ' ')()); // "foobar  "
writeln("00223.444500".stripLeft!(a => a == '0')()); // "223.444500"
writeln("ůůűniçodêéé".stripLeft!(a => a == 'ů')()); // "űniçodêéé"
writeln([1, 1, 0, 1, 1].stripLeft!(a => a == 1)()); // [0, 1, 1]
writeln([0.0, 0.01, 0.10, 0.5, 0.6].stripLeft!(a => a < 0.4)().length); // 2
Examples:
Strip trailing elements equal to the target element.
writeln("  foobar  ".stripRight(' ')); // "  foobar"
writeln("00223.444500".stripRight('0')); // "00223.4445"
writeln("ùniçodêéé".stripRight('é')); // "ùniçodê"
writeln([1, 1, 0, 1, 1].stripRight(1)); // [1, 1, 0]
writeln([0.0, 0.01, 0.01, 0.0].stripRight(0).length); // 3
Examples:
Strip trailing elements while the predicate returns true.
writeln("  foobar  ".stripRight!(a => a == ' ')()); // "  foobar"
writeln("00223.444500".stripRight!(a => a == '0')()); // "00223.4445"
writeln("ùniçodêéé".stripRight!(a => a == 'é')()); // "ùniçodê"
writeln([1, 1, 0, 1, 1].stripRight!(a => a == 1)()); // [1, 1, 0]
writeln([0.0, 0.01, 0.10, 0.5, 0.6].stripRight!(a => a > 0.4)().length); // 3
pure nothrow @nogc @trusted void swap(T)(ref T lhs, ref T rhs)
if (isBlitAssignable!T && !is(typeof(lhs.proxySwap(rhs))));

void swap(T)(ref T lhs, ref T rhs)
if (is(typeof(lhs.proxySwap(rhs))));
Swaps lhs and rhs. The instances lhs and rhs are moved in memory, without ever calling opAssign, nor any other function. T need not be assignable at all to be swapped.
If lhs and rhs reference the same instance, then nothing is done.
lhs and rhs must be mutable. If T is a struct or union, then its fields must also all be (recursively) mutable.
Parameters:
T lhs Data to be swapped with rhs.
T rhs Data to be swapped with lhs.
Examples:
// Swapping POD (plain old data) types:
int a = 42, b = 34;
swap(a, b);
writeln(b); // 42

// Swapping structs with indirection:
static struct S { int x; char c; int[] y; }
S s1 = { 0, 'z', [ 1, 2 ] };
S s2 = { 42, 'a', [ 4, 6 ] };
swap(s1, s2);
writeln(s1.x); // 42
writeln(s1.c); // 'a'
writeln(s1.y); // [4, 6]

writeln(s2.x); // 0
writeln(s2.c); // 'z'
writeln(s2.y); // [1, 2]

// Immutables cannot be swapped:
immutable int imm1, imm2;
static assert(!__traits(compiles, swap(imm1, imm2)));
Examples:
// Non-copyable types can still be swapped.
static struct NoCopy
{
    this(this) { assert(0); }
    int n;
    string s;
}
NoCopy nc1, nc2;
nc1.n = 127; nc1.s = "abc";
nc2.n = 513; nc2.s = "uvwxyz";

swap(nc1, nc2);
writeln(nc1.s); // "uvwxyz"
writeln(nc2.s); // "abc"

swap(nc1, nc1);
swap(nc2, nc2);
writeln(nc1.s); // "uvwxyz"
writeln(nc2.s); // "abc"

// Types containing non-copyable fields can also be swapped.
static struct NoCopyHolder
{
    NoCopy noCopy;
}
NoCopyHolder h1, h2;
h1.noCopy.n = 31; h1.noCopy.s = "abc";
h2.noCopy.n = 65; h2.noCopy.s = null;

swap(h1, h2);
writeln(h1.noCopy.s); // null
writeln(h2.noCopy.s); // "abc"

swap(h1, h1);
swap(h2, h2);
writeln(h1.noCopy.s); // null
writeln(h2.noCopy.s); // "abc"

// Const types cannot be swapped.
const NoCopy const1, const2;
static assert(!__traits(compiles, swap(const1, const2)));
void swapAt(R)(auto ref R r, size_t i1, size_t i2);
Swaps two elements in-place of a range r, specified by their indices i1 and i2.
Parameters:
R r a range with swappable elements
size_t i1 first index
size_t i2 second index
Examples:
import std.algorithm.comparison : equal;
auto a = [1, 2, 3];
a.swapAt(1, 2);
assert(a.equal([1, 3, 2]));
Tuple!(InputRange1, InputRange2) swapRanges(InputRange1, InputRange2)(InputRange1 r1, InputRange2 r2)
if (isInputRange!InputRange1 && isInputRange!InputRange2 && hasSwappableElements!InputRange1 && hasSwappableElements!InputRange2 && is(ElementType!InputRange1 == ElementType!InputRange2));
Swaps all elements of r1 with successive elements in r2. Returns a tuple containing the remainder portions of r1 and r2 that were not swapped (one of them will be empty). The ranges may be of different types but must have the same element type and support swapping.
Parameters:
InputRange1 r1 an input range with swappable elements
InputRange2 r2 an input range with swappable elements
Returns:
Tuple containing the remainder portions of r1 and r2 that were not swapped
Examples:
import std.range : empty;
int[] a = [ 100, 101, 102, 103 ];
int[] b = [ 0, 1, 2, 3 ];
auto c = swapRanges(a[1 .. 3], b[2 .. 4]);
assert(c[0].empty && c[1].empty);
writeln(a); // [100, 2, 3, 103]
writeln(b); // [0, 1, 101, 102]
void uninitializedFill(Range, Value)(Range range, Value value)
if (isInputRange!Range && hasLvalueElements!Range && is(typeof(range.front = value)));
Initializes each element of range with value. Assumes that the elements of the range are uninitialized. This is of interest for structs that define copy constructors (for all other types, fill and uninitializedFill are equivalent).
Parameters:
Range range An input range that exposes references to its elements and has assignable elements
Value value Assigned to each element of range
Examples:
import core.stdc.stdlib : malloc, free;

auto s = (cast(int*) malloc(5 * int.sizeof))[0 .. 5];
uninitializedFill(s, 42);
writeln(s); // [42, 42, 42, 42, 42]

scope(exit) free(s.ptr);