# Complicated Types: Prefer “alias this” Over “alias” For Easier-To-Read Error Messages

Nick Sabalausky is a long-time D user and contributor. He is the maintainer of mysql-native and Scriptlike. In this post, he presents a way to use a specific D language feature to improve error messages involving aliased types.

In the D programming language, alias is a common and handy feature that can be used to provide a simple name for a complex and verbose templated type.

As an example, consider the case of an algebraic type or tagged union:

// A type that can be either an int or a string
Algebraic!(int, string) someVariable;

That’s a fairly simple example. Much more complicated type names are common in D. This sort of thing can be a pain to repeat everywhere it’s used, and can make code difficult to read. alias is often used in situations like this to create a simpler shorthand name:

// A type that can be either an int or a string
alias MyType = Algebraic!(int, string);

// Ahh, much nicer!
MyType someVariable;

There’s one problem this still doesn’t solve. Anytime a compiler error message shows a type name, it shows the full original name, not the convenient easy-to-read alias. Instead of errors saying MyType, they’ll still say Algebraic!(int, string). This can be especially unfriendly if MyType is in the public API of a library and happens to be constructed using some private, internal-only template.

That can be fixed, and error messages forced to provide the customized name, by creating MyType as a separate type on its own, rather than an alias. But how? If this was C or C++, typedef would do the job nicely. There is a D equivalent, std.typecons.Typedef!T, which will create a separate type. But naming the type still involves alias, which just leads back to the same problem.

Luckily, D has another feature which can help simulate a C-style typedef: alias this. Used inside a struct (or class), alias this allows the struct to be implicitly converted to and behave just like any one of its members.

Incidentally, although alias and alias this are separate features of the language, they do have a shared history as their names suggest. Originally, alias was intended to be a variation on C’s typedef, one which would result in two names for the same type instead of two separate types. At the time, D had typedef as well, but it was eventually dropped as a language feature in favor of a standard library solution (the aforementioned std.typecons.Typedef template). As a variant of typedef, alias used the same syntax (alias TypeName AliasName;). Later, alias spawned the alias this feature, which was given a similar syntax: alias memberName this. When alias gained its modern syntax (alias AliasName = TypeName), a lengthy debate resulted in keeping the existing syntax for alias this.

Here is how alias this can be used to solve our problem:

// A type that can be either an int or a string
struct MyType {
private Algebraic!(int, string) _data;
alias _data this;
}

// Ahh, much nicer! And now error messages say "MyType"!
MyType someVariable;

There’s an important difference to be aware of, though. Before, when using alias, MyType and Algebraic!(int, string) were considered the same type. Now, they’re not. Is that a problem? What does that imply? Mainly, it means two things:

1. Although this doesn’t affect any actual code, it can mean the compiler generates extra, duplicate template instantiations. If MyType is passed to one template, and somewhere else Algebraic!(int, string) is passed to the same template, the compiler will now generate two separate template instantiations instead of just one.
In practice though, this shouldn’t be a problem unless you’re already in a genuine template-bloat situation and are trying to reduce template instantiations. Usually, this won’t be an issue.
2. Although the alias this means MyType can still be implicitly converted to Algebraic!(int, string), the other way around no longer works. An Algebraic!(int, string) can no longer be implicitly converted to a MyType.
Arguably, this can be considered a good thing if you believe, as I do, in using domain-specific types. But in any case, you can still manually convert the original type to your MyType with the basic built-in struct constructor:

Algebraic!(int, string) algebVar;
auto myVar = MyType(algebVar);

So when you’re aliasing a large, complicated type name to a simpler name, consider using a struct and alias this instead, especially if it’s a type on offer in a library. There’s little downside, and it will greatly improve the readability of error messages for both yourself and your library’s users.

## 2 thoughts on “Complicated Types: Prefer “alias this” Over “alias” For Easier-To-Read Error Messages”

1. JC

It’s mighty unfortunate that D calls its variant type “Algebraic”. What name will it use when it gets real ADTs?

2. Nick Sabalausky

Well, really D’s variant type is “Variant” (I only know of one language that uses the name “variant” to refer to algebraic types taking a user-specified list of allowed concrete types.)

As for other names D could use for algebraic types, there’s one just-released type on code.dlang.org that calls itself another common formal term for the basic concept: “SumType” (it’s a very nice implementation, from what I’ve seen). Another one goes by “TaggedAlgebraic”. Other implementations could use other variations of those names – or even reuse an already existing name (D has some very good features that prevent the problems which normally arise from name-collisions).