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std.range

This module defines the notion of a range. Ranges generalize the concept of arrays, lists, or anything that involves sequential access. This abstraction enables the same set of algorithms (see std.algorithm) to be used with a vast variety of different concrete types. For example, a linear search algorithm such as std.algorithm.find works not just for arrays, but for linked-lists, input files, incoming network data, etc.

For more detailed information about the conceptual aspect of ranges and the motivation behind them, see Andrei Alexandrescu's article On Iteration.

This module defines several templates for testing whether a given object is a range, and what kind of range it is:
isInputRange Tests if something is an input range, defined to be something from which one can sequentially read data using the primitives front, popFront, and empty.
isOutputRange Tests if something is an output range, defined to be something to which one can sequentially write data using the put primitive.
isForwardRange Tests if something is a forward range, defined to be an input range with the additional capability that one can save one's current position with the save primitive, thus allowing one to iterate over the same range multiple times.
isBidirectionalRange Tests if something is a bidirectional range, that is, a forward range that allows reverse traversal using the primitives back and popBack.
isRandomAccessRange Tests if something is a random access range, which is a bidirectional range that also supports the array subscripting operation via the primitive opIndex.

A number of templates are provided that test for various range capabilities:

hasMobileElements Tests if a given range's elements can be moved around using the primitives moveFront, moveBack, or moveAt.
ElementType Returns the element type of a given range.
ElementEncodingType Returns the encoding element type of a given range.
hasSwappableElements Tests if a range is a forward range with swappable elements.
hasAssignableElements Tests if a range is a forward range with mutable elements.
hasLvalueElements Tests if a range is a forward range with elements that can be passed by reference and have their address taken.
hasLength Tests if a given range has the length attribute.
isInfinite Tests if a given range is an infinite range.
hasSlicing Tests if a given range supports the array slicing operation R[x..y].
walkLength Computes the length of any range in O(n) time.

A rich set of range creation and composition templates are provided that let you construct new ranges out of existing ranges:

retro Iterates a bidirectional range backwards.
stride Iterates a range with stride n.
chain Concatenates several ranges into a single range.
roundRobin Given n ranges, creates a new range that return the n first elements of each range, in turn, then the second element of each range, and so on, in a round-robin fashion.
radial Given a random-access range and a starting point, creates a range that alternately returns the next left and next right element to the starting point.
take Creates a sub-range consisting of only up to the first n elements of the given range.
takeExactly Like take, but assumes the given range actually has n elements, and therefore also defines the length property.
takeOne Creates a random-access range consisting of exactly the first element of the given range.
takeNone Creates a random-access range consisting of zero elements of the given range.
drop Creates the range that results from discarding the first n elements from the given range.
dropExactly Creates the range that results from discarding exactly n of the first elements from the given range.
dropOne Creates the range that results from discarding the first elements from the given range.
repeat Creates a range that consists of a single element repeated n times, or an infinite range repeating that element indefinitely.
cycle Creates an infinite range that repeats the given forward range indefinitely. Good for implementing circular buffers.
zip Given n ranges, creates a range that successively returns a tuple of all the first elements, a tuple of all the second elements, etc.
lockstep Iterates n ranges in lockstep, for use in a foreach loop. Similar to zip, except that lockstep is designed especially for foreach loops.
recurrence Creates a forward range whose values are defined by a mathematical recurrence relation.
sequence Similar to recurrence, except that a random-access range is created.
iota Creates a range consisting of numbers between a starting point and ending point, spaced apart by a given interval.
frontTransversal Creates a range that iterates over the first elements of the given ranges.
transversal Creates a range that iterates over the n'th elements of the given random-access ranges.
indexed Creates a range that offers a view of a given range as though its elements were reordered according to a given range of indices.
chunks Creates a range that returns fixed-size chunks of the original range.
only Creates a range that iterates over the given arguments.

These range-construction tools are implemented using templates; but sometimes an object-based interface for ranges is needed. For this purpose, this module provides a number of object and interface definitions that can be used to wrap around range objects created by the above templates.

InputRange Wrapper for input ranges.
InputAssignable Wrapper for input ranges with assignable elements.
ForwardRange Wrapper for forward ranges.
ForwardAssignable Wrapper for forward ranges with assignable elements.
BidirectionalRange Wrapper for bidirectional ranges.
BidirectionalAssignable Wrapper for bidirectional ranges with assignable elements.
RandomAccessFinite Wrapper for finite random-access ranges.
RandomAccessAssignable Wrapper for finite random-access ranges with assignable elements.
RandomAccessInfinite Wrapper for infinite random-access ranges.
OutputRange Wrapper for output ranges.
OutputRangeObject Class that implements the OutputRange interface and wraps the put methods in virtual functions.
InputRangeObject Class that implements the InputRange interface and wraps the input range methods in virtual functions.
RefRange Wrapper around a forward range that gives it reference semantics.

Ranges whose elements are sorted afford better efficiency with certain operations. For this, the assumeSorted function can be used to construct a SortedRange from a pre-sorted range. The std.algorithm.sort function also conveniently returns a SortedRange. SortedRange objects provide some additional range operations that take advantage of the fact that the range is sorted.

Finally, this module also defines some convenience functions for manipulating ranges:

popFrontN Advances a given range by up to n elements.
popBackN Advances a given bidirectional range from the right by up to n elements.
popFrontExactly Advances a given range by up exactly n elements.
popBackExactly Advances a given bidirectional range from the right by exactly n elements.
moveFront Removes the front element of a range.
moveBack Removes the back element of a bidirectional range.
moveAt Removes the i'th element of a random-access range.

Source:
std/range.d

License:
Boost License 1.0.

Authors:
Andrei Alexandrescu, David Simcha, and Jonathan M Davis. Credit for some of the ideas in building this module goes to Leonardo Maffi.

template isInputRange(R)
Returns true if R is an input range. An input range must define the primitives empty, popFront, and front. The following code should compile for any input range.

R r;              // can define a range object
if (r.empty) {}   // can test for empty
r.popFront();     // can invoke popFront()
auto h = r.front; // can get the front of the range of non-void type

The semantics of an input range (not checkable during compilation) are assumed to be the following (r is an object of type R):

  • r.empty returns false iff there is more data available in the range.
  • r.front returns the current element in the range. It may return by value or by reference. Calling r.front is allowed only if calling r.empty has, or would have, returned false.
  • r.popFront advances to the next element in the range. Calling r.popFront is allowed only if calling r.empty has, or would have, returned false.

void put(R, E)(ref R r, E e);
Outputs e to r. The exact effect is dependent upon the two types. Several cases are accepted, as described below. The code snippets are attempted in order, and the first to compile "wins" and gets evaluated.

In this table "doPut" is a method that places e into r, using the correct primitive: r.put(e) if R defines put, r.front = e if r is an input range (followed by r.popFront()), or r(e) otherwise.

Code Snippet Scenario
r.doPut(e); R specifically accepts an E.
r.doPut([ e ]); R specifically accepts an E[].
r.putChar(e); R accepts some form of string or character. put will transcode the character e accordingly.
for (; !e.empty; e.popFront()) put(r, e.front); Copying range E into R.

Tip:
put should not be used "UFCS-style", eg r.put(e). Doing this may call R.put directly, by-passing any transformation feature provided by Range.put. put(r, e) is prefered.

template isOutputRange(R, E)
Returns true if R is an output range for elements of type E. An output range is defined functionally as a range that supports the operation put(r, e) as defined above.

template isForwardRange(R)
Returns true if R is a forward range. A forward range is an input range r that can save "checkpoints" by saving r.save to another value of type R. Notable examples of input ranges that are not forward ranges are file/socket ranges; copying such a range will not save the position in the stream, and they most likely reuse an internal buffer as the entire stream does not sit in memory. Subsequently, advancing either the original or the copy will advance the stream, so the copies are not independent.

The following code should compile for any forward range.

static assert(isInputRange!R);
R r1;
static assert (is(typeof(r1.save) == R));

Saving a range is not duplicating it; in the example above, r1 and r2 still refer to the same underlying data. They just navigate that data independently.

The semantics of a forward range (not checkable during compilation) are the same as for an input range, with the additional requirement that backtracking must be possible by saving a copy of the range object with save and using it later.

template isBidirectionalRange(R)
Returns true if R is a bidirectional range. A bidirectional range is a forward range that also offers the primitives back and popBack. The following code should compile for any bidirectional range.

R r;
static assert(isForwardRange!R);           // is forward range
r.popBack();                               // can invoke popBack
auto t = r.back;                           // can get the back of the range
auto w = r.front;
static assert(is(typeof(t) == typeof(w))); // same type for front and back

The semantics of a bidirectional range (not checkable during compilation) are assumed to be the following (r is an object of type R):

  • r.back returns (possibly a reference to) the last element in the range. Calling r.back is allowed only if calling r.empty has, or would have, returned false.

template isRandomAccessRange(R)
Returns true if R is a random-access range. A random-access range is a bidirectional range that also offers the primitive opIndex, OR an infinite forward range that offers opIndex. In either case, the range must either offer length or be infinite. The following code should compile for any random-access range.

// range is finite and bidirectional or infinite and forward.
static assert(isBidirectionalRange!R ||
              isForwardRange!R && isInfinite!R);

R r = void;
auto e = r[1]; // can index
static assert(is(typeof(e) == typeof(r.front))); // same type for indexed and front
static assert(!isNarrowString!R); // narrow strings cannot be indexed as ranges
static assert(hasLength!R || isInfinite!R); // must have length or be infinite

// $ must work as it does with arrays if opIndex works with $
static if(is(typeof(r[$])))
{
    static assert(is(typeof(r.front) == typeof(r[$])));

    // $ - 1 doesn't make sense with infinite ranges but needs to work
    // with finite ones.
    static if(!isInfinite!R)
        static assert(is(typeof(r.front) == typeof(r[$ - 1])));
}

The semantics of a random-access range (not checkable during compilation) are assumed to be the following (r is an object of type R):
  • r.opIndex(n) returns a reference to the nth element in the range.

Although char[] and wchar[] (as well as their qualified versions including string and wstring) are arrays, isRandomAccessRange yields false for them because they use variable-length encodings (UTF-8 and UTF-16 respectively). These types are bidirectional ranges only.

template hasMobileElements(R)
Returns true iff R supports the moveFront primitive, as well as moveBack and moveAt if it's a bidirectional or random access range. These may be explicitly implemented, or may work via the default behavior of the module level functions moveFront and friends.

template ElementType(R)
The element type of R. R does not have to be a range. The element type is determined as the type yielded by r.front for an object r of type R. For example, ElementType!(T[]) is T if T[] isn't a narrow string; if it is, the element type is dchar. If R doesn't have front, ElementType!R is void.

Examples:
// Standard arrays: returns the type of the elements of the array
static assert(is(ElementType!(byte[]) == byte));
static assert(is(ElementType!(int[]) == int));

// Accessing .front retrieves the decoded dchar
static assert(is(ElementType!(char[])  == dchar)); // rvalue
static assert(is(ElementType!(wchar[]) == dchar)); // rvalue
static assert(is(ElementType!(dchar[]) == dchar)); // lvalue

// Ditto
static assert(is(ElementType!(string) == dchar));
static assert(is(ElementType!(wstring) == dchar));
static assert(is(ElementType!(dstring) == immutable(dchar)));

// For ranges it gets the type of .front.
auto range = iota(0, 10);
static assert(is(ElementType!(typeof(range)) == int));

template ElementEncodingType(R)
The encoding element type of R. For narrow strings (char[], wchar[] and their qualified variants including string and wstring), ElementEncodingType is the character type of the string. For all other types, ElementEncodingType is the same as ElementType.

Examples:
// internally the range stores the encoded type
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(char[])  == char));
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(wchar[]) == wchar));
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(dchar[]) == dchar));

// ditto
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(string)  == immutable(char)));
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(wstring) == immutable(wchar)));
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(dstring) == immutable(dchar)));

static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(byte[]) == byte));
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(int[])  == int));

auto range = iota(0, 10);
static assert(is(ElementEncodingType!(typeof(range)) == int));

template hasSwappableElements(R)
Returns true if R is a forward range and has swappable elements. The following code should compile for any range with swappable elements.

R r;
static assert(isForwardRange!(R));   // range is forward
swap(r.front, r.front);              // can swap elements of the range

template hasAssignableElements(R)
Returns true if R is a forward range and has mutable elements. The following code should compile for any range with assignable elements.

R r;
static assert(isForwardRange!R);  // range is forward
auto e = r.front;
r.front = e;                      // can assign elements of the range

template hasLvalueElements(R)
Tests whether R has lvalue elements. These are defined as elements that can be passed by reference and have their address taken.

template hasLength(R)
Returns true if R has a length member that returns an integral type. R does not have to be a range. Note that length is an optional primitive as no range must implement it. Some ranges do not store their length explicitly, some cannot compute it without actually exhausting the range (e.g. socket streams), and some other ranges may be infinite.

Although narrow string types (char[], wchar[], and their qualified derivatives) do define a length property, hasLength yields false for them. This is because a narrow string's length does not reflect the number of characters, but instead the number of encoding units, and as such is not useful with range-oriented algorithms.

template isInfinite(R)
Returns true if R is an infinite input range. An infinite input range is an input range that has a statically-defined enumerated member called empty that is always false, for example:

struct MyInfiniteRange
{
    enum bool empty = false;
    ...
}

template hasSlicing(R)
Returns true if R offers a slicing operator with integral boundaries that returns a forward range type.

For finite ranges, the result of opSlice must be of the same type as the original range type. If the range defines opDollar, then it must support subtraction.

For infinite ranges, when not using opDollar, the result of opSlice must be the result of take or takeExactly on the original range (they both return the same type for infinite ranges). However, when using opDollar, the result of opSlice must be that of the original range type.

The following code must compile for hasSlicing to be true:

R r = void;

static if(isInfinite!R)
    typeof(take(r, 1)) s = r[1 .. 2];
else
{
    static assert(is(typeof(r[1 .. 2]) == R));
    R s = r[1 .. 2];
}

s = r[1 .. 2];

static if(is(typeof(r[0 .. $])))
{
    static assert(is(typeof(r[0 .. $]) == R));
    R t = r[0 .. $];
    t = r[0 .. $];

    static if(!isInfinite!R)
    {
        static assert(is(typeof(r[0 .. $ - 1]) == R));
        R u = r[0 .. $ - 1];
        u = r[0 .. $ - 1];
    }
}

static assert(isForwardRange!(typeof(r[1 .. 2])));
static assert(hasLength!(typeof(r[1 .. 2])));

auto walkLength(Range)(Range range) if (isInputRange!Range && !isInfinite!Range);
auto walkLength(Range)(Range range, const size_t upTo) if (isInputRange!Range);
This is a best-effort implementation of length for any kind of range.

If hasLength!Range, simply returns range.length without checking upTo (when specified).

Otherwise, walks the range through its length and returns the number of elements seen. Performes Ο(n) evaluations of range.empty and range.popFront(), where n is the effective length of range.

The upTo parameter is useful to "cut the losses" in case the interest is in seeing whether the range has at least some number of elements. If the parameter upTo is specified, stops if upTo steps have been taken and returns upTo.

Infinite ranges are compatible, provided the parameter upTo is specified, in which case the implementation simply returns upTo.

auto retro(Range)(Range r) if (isBidirectionalRange!(Unqual!Range));
Iterates a bidirectional range backwards. The original range can be accessed by using the source property. Applying retro twice to the same range yields the original range.

Example:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
assert(equal(retro(a), [ 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 ][]));
assert(retro(a).source is a);
assert(retro(retro(a)) is a);

auto stride(Range)(Range r, size_t n) if (isInputRange!(Unqual!Range));
Iterates range r with stride n. If the range is a random-access range, moves by indexing into the range; otherwise, moves by successive calls to popFront. Applying stride twice to the same range results in a stride with a step that is the product of the two applications.

Throws:
Exception if n == 0.

Example:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 ];
assert(equal(stride(a, 3), [ 1, 4, 7, 10 ][]));
assert(stride(stride(a, 2), 3) == stride(a, 6));

auto chain(Ranges...)(Ranges rs) if (Ranges.length > 0 && allSatisfy!(isInputRange, staticMap!(Unqual, Ranges)) && !is(CommonType!(staticMap!(ElementType, staticMap!(Unqual, Ranges))) == void));
Spans multiple ranges in sequence. The function chain takes any number of ranges and returns a Chain!(R1, R2,...) object. The ranges may be different, but they must have the same element type. The result is a range that offers the front, popFront, and empty primitives. If all input ranges offer random access and length, Chain offers them as well.

If only one range is offered to Chain or chain, the Chain type exits the picture by aliasing itself directly to that range's type.

Example:
int[] arr1 = [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ];
int[] arr2 = [ 5, 6 ];
int[] arr3 = [ 7 ];
auto s = chain(arr1, arr2, arr3);
assert(s.length == 7);
assert(s[5] == 6);
assert(equal(s, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7][]));

auto roundRobin(Rs...)(Rs rs) if (Rs.length > 1 && allSatisfy!(isInputRange, staticMap!(Unqual, Rs)));
roundRobin(r1, r2, r3) yields r1.front, then r2.front, then r3.front, after which it pops off one element from each and continues again from r1. For example, if two ranges are involved, it alternately yields elements off the two ranges. roundRobin stops after it has consumed all ranges (skipping over the ones that finish early).

Example:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4];
int[] b = [ 10, 20 ];
assert(equal(roundRobin(a, b), [1, 10, 2, 20, 3, 4]));

auto radial(Range, I)(Range r, I startingIndex) if (isRandomAccessRange!(Unqual!Range) && hasLength!(Unqual!Range) && isIntegral!I);
auto radial(R)(R r) if (isRandomAccessRange!(Unqual!R) && hasLength!(Unqual!R));
Iterates a random-access range starting from a given point and progressively extending left and right from that point. If no initial point is given, iteration starts from the middle of the range. Iteration spans the entire range.

Example:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
assert(equal(radial(a), [ 3, 4, 2, 5, 1 ]));
a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4 ];
assert(equal(radial(a), [ 2, 3, 1, 4 ]));

struct Take(Range) if (isInputRange!(Unqual!Range) && !(!isInfinite!(Unqual!Range) && hasSlicing!(Unqual!Range) || is(Range T == Take!T)));
Take!R take(R)(R input, size_t n) if (isInputRange!(Unqual!R) && !isInfinite!(Unqual!R) && hasSlicing!(Unqual!R));
Lazily takes only up to n elements of a range. This is particularly useful when using with infinite ranges. If the range offers random access and length, Take offers them as well.

Example:
int[] arr1 = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 ];
auto s = take(arr1, 5);
assert(s.length == 5);
assert(s[4] == 5);
assert(equal(s, [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ][]));

auto takeExactly(R)(R range, size_t n) if (isInputRange!R);
Similar to take, but assumes that range has at least n elements. Consequently, the result of takeExactly(range, n) always defines the length property (and initializes it to n) even when range itself does not define length.

The result of takeExactly is identical to that of take in cases where the original range defines length or is infinite.

auto takeOne(R)(R source) if (isInputRange!R);
Returns a range with at most one element; for example, takeOne([42, 43, 44]) returns a range consisting of the integer 42. Calling popFront() off that range renders it empty.

auto s = takeOne([42, 43, 44]);
static assert(isRandomAccessRange!(typeof(s)));
assert(s.length == 1);
assert(!s.empty);
assert(s.front == 42);
s.front() = 43;
assert(s.front == 43);
assert(s.back == 43);
assert(s[0] == 43);
s.popFront();
assert(s.length == 0);
assert(s.empty);

In effect takeOne(r) is somewhat equivalent to take(r, 1) but in certain interfaces it is important to know statically that the range may only have at most one element.

The type returned by takeOne is a random-access range with length regardless of R's capabilities (another feature that distinguishes takeOne from take).

auto takeNone(R)() if (isInputRange!R);
Returns an empty range which is statically known to be empty and is guaranteed to have length and be random access regardless of R's capabilities.

Examples:
auto range = takeNone!(int[])();
assert(range.length == 0);
assert(range.empty);

auto takeNone(R)(R range) if (isInputRange!R);
Creates an empty range from the given range in Ο(1). If it can, it will return the same range type. If not, it will return takeExactly(range, 0).

Examples:
assert(takeNone([42, 27, 19]).empty);
assert(takeNone("dlang.org").empty);
assert(takeNone(filter!"true"([42, 27, 19])).empty);

R drop(R)(R range, size_t n) if (isInputRange!R);
R dropBack(R)(R range, size_t n) if (isBidirectionalRange!R);
Convenience function which calls range.popFrontN(n) and returns range. drop makes it easier to pop elements from a range and then pass it to another function within a single expression, whereas popFrontN would require multiple statements.

dropBack provides the same functionality but instead calls range.popBackN(n).

Note:
drop and dropBack will only pop up to n elements but will stop if the range is empty first.

Examples:
assert([0, 2, 1, 5, 0, 3].drop(3) == [5, 0, 3]);
assert("hello world".drop(6) == "world");
assert("hello world".drop(50).empty);
assert("hello world".take(6).drop(3).equal("lo "));

//Remove all but the first two elements
auto a = DList!int(0, 1, 9, 9, 9);
a.remove(a[].drop(2));
assert(a[].equal(a[].take(2)));

assert([0, 2, 1, 5, 0, 3].dropBack(3) == [0, 2, 1]);
assert("hello world".dropBack(6) == "hello");
assert("hello world".dropBack(50).empty);
assert("hello world".drop(4).dropBack(4).equal("o w"));

//insert before the last two elements
auto a = DList!int(0, 1, 2, 5, 6);
a.insertAfter(a[].dropBack(2), [3, 4]);
assert(a[].equal(iota(0, 7)));

R dropExactly(R)(R range, size_t n) if (isInputRange!R);
R dropBackExactly(R)(R range, size_t n) if (isBidirectionalRange!R);
Similar to drop and dropBack but they call range.popFrontExactly(n) and range.popBackExactly(n) instead.

Note:
Unlike drop, dropExactly will assume that the range holds at least n elements. This makes dropExactly faster than drop, but it also means that if range does not contain at least n elements, it will attempt to call popFront on an empty range, which is undefined behavior. So, only use popFrontExactly when it is guaranteed that range holds at least n elements.

R dropOne(R)(R range) if (isInputRange!R);
R dropBackOne(R)(R range) if (isBidirectionalRange!R);
Convenience function which calls range.popFront() and returns range. dropOne makes it easier to pop an element from a range and then pass it to another function within a single expression, whereas popFront would require multiple statements.

dropBackOne provides the same functionality but instead calls range.popBack().

Example:
auto dl = DList!int(9, 1, 2, 3, 9);
assert(dl[].dropOne().dropBackOne().equal([1, 2, 3]));

size_t popFrontN(Range)(ref Range r, size_t n) if (isInputRange!Range);
size_t popBackN(Range)(ref Range r, size_t n) if (isBidirectionalRange!Range);
Eagerly advances r itself (not a copy) up to n times (by calling r.popFront). popFrontN takes r by ref, so it mutates the original range. Completes in Ο(1) steps for ranges that support slicing and have length. Completes in Ο(n) time for all other ranges.

Returns:
How much r was actually advanced, which may be less than n if r did not have at least n elements.

popBackN will behave the same but instead removes elements from the back of the (bidirectional) range instead of the front.

Example:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
a.popFrontN(2);
assert(a == [ 3, 4, 5 ]);
a.popFrontN(7);
assert(a == [ ]);

int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ];
a.popBackN(2);
assert(a == [ 1, 2, 3 ]);
a.popBackN(7);
assert(a == [ ]);

void popFrontExactly(Range)(ref Range r, size_t n) if (isInputRange!Range);
void popBackExactly(Range)(ref Range r, size_t n) if (isBidirectionalRange!Range);
Eagerly advances r itself (not a copy) exactly n times (by calling r.popFront). popFrontExactly takes r by ref, so it mutates the original range. Completes in Ο(1) steps for ranges that support slicing, and have either length or are infinite. Completes in Ο(n) time for all other ranges.

Note:
Unlike popFrontN, popFrontExactly will assume that the range holds at least n elements. This makes popFrontExactly faster than popFrontN, but it also means that if range does not contain at least n elements, it will attempt to call popFront on an empty range, which is undefined behavior. So, only use popFrontExactly when it is guaranteed that range holds at least n elements.

popBackExactly will behave the same but instead removes elements from the back of the (bidirectional) range instead of the front.

struct Repeat(T);
Repeat!T repeat(T)(T value);
Repeats one value forever.

Models an infinite bidirectional and random access range, with slicing.

Examples:
assert(equal(5.repeat().take(4), [ 5, 5, 5, 5 ]));

Take!(Repeat!T) repeat(T)(T value, size_t n);
Repeats value exactly n times. Equivalent to take(repeat(value), n).

Examples:
assert(equal(5.repeat(4), 5.repeat().take(4)));

struct Cycle(R) if (isForwardRange!R && !isInfinite!R);
Cycle!R cycle(R)(R input) if (isForwardRange!R && !isInfinite!R);
Cycle!R cycle(R)(R input, size_t index = 0) if (isRandomAccessRange!R && !isInfinite!R);
Repeats the given forward range ad infinitum. If the original range is infinite (fact that would make Cycle the identity application), Cycle detects that and aliases itself to the range type itself. If the original range has random access, Cycle offers random access and also offers a constructor taking an initial position index. Cycle works with static arrays in addition to ranges, mostly for performance reasons.

Example:
assert(equal(take(cycle([1, 2][]), 5), [ 1, 2, 1, 2, 1 ][]));

Tip:
This is a great way to implement simple circular buffers.

struct Zip(Ranges...) if (Ranges.length && allSatisfy!(isInputRange, Ranges));
auto zip(Ranges...)(Ranges ranges) if (Ranges.length && allSatisfy!(isInputRange, Ranges));
auto zip(Ranges...)(StoppingPolicy sp, Ranges ranges) if (Ranges.length && allSatisfy!(isInputRange, Ranges));
Iterate several ranges in lockstep. The element type is a proxy tuple that allows accessing the current element in the nth range by using e[n].

Example:
int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
string[] b = [ "a", "b", "c" ];
// prints 1:a 2:b 3:c
foreach (e; zip(a, b))
{
write(e[0], ':', e[1], ' ');
}

Zip offers the lowest range facilities of all components, e.g. it offers random access iff all ranges offer random access, and also offers mutation and swapping if all ranges offer it. Due to this, Zip is extremely powerful because it allows manipulating several ranges in lockstep. For example, the following code sorts two arrays in parallel:

int[] a = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
string[] b = [ "a", "b", "c" ];
sort!("a[0] > b[0]")(zip(a, b));
assert(a == [ 3, 2, 1 ]);
assert(b == [ "c", "b", "a" ]);

this(R rs, StoppingPolicy s = StoppingPolicy.shortest);
Builds an object. Usually this is invoked indirectly by using the zip function.

bool empty;
Returns true if the range is at end. The test depends on the stopping policy.

ElementType front();
Returns the current iterated element.

void front(ElementType v);
Sets the front of all iterated ranges.

ElementType moveFront();
Moves out the front.

ElementType back();
Returns the rightmost element.

ElementType moveBack();
Moves out the back.

Returns the rightmost element.

void back(ElementType v);
Returns the current iterated element.

Returns the rightmost element.

void popFront();
Advances to the next element in all controlled ranges.

void popBack();
Calls popBack for all controlled ranges.

@property auto length();
Returns the length of this range. Defined only if all ranges define length.

alias opDollar = length;
Returns the length of this range. Defined only if all ranges define length.

auto opSlice(size_t from, size_t to);
Returns a slice of the range. Defined only if all range define slicing.

ElementType opIndex(size_t n);
Returns the nth element in the composite range. Defined if all ranges offer random access.

void opIndexAssign(ElementType v, size_t n);
Assigns to the nth element in the composite range. Defined if all ranges offer random access.

ElementType moveAt(size_t n);
Destructively reads the nth element in the composite range. Defined if all ranges offer random access.

enum StoppingPolicy: int;
Dictates how iteration in a Zip should stop. By default stop at the end of the shortest of all ranges.

shortest
Stop when the shortest range is exhausted

longest
Stop when the longest range is exhausted

requireSameLength
Require that all ranges are equal

struct Lockstep(Ranges...) if (Ranges.length > 1 && allSatisfy!(isInputRange, Ranges));
Lockstep!Ranges lockstep(Ranges...)(Ranges ranges) if (allSatisfy!(isInputRange, Ranges));
Lockstep!Ranges lockstep(Ranges...)(Ranges ranges, StoppingPolicy s) if (allSatisfy!(isInputRange, Ranges));
Iterate multiple ranges in lockstep using a foreach loop. If only a single range is passed in, the Lockstep aliases itself away. If the ranges are of different lengths and s == StoppingPolicy.shortest stop after the shortest range is empty. If the ranges are of different lengths and s == StoppingPolicy.requireSameLength, throw an exception. s may not be StoppingPolicy.longest, and passing this will throw an exception.

By default StoppingPolicy is set to StoppingPolicy.shortest.

BUGS:
If a range does not offer lvalue access, but ref is used in the foreach loop, it will be silently accepted but any modifications to the variable will not be propagated to the underlying range.

Examples:
auto arr1 = [1,2,3,4,5];
auto arr2 = [6,7,8,9,10];

foreach(ref a, ref b; lockstep(arr1, arr2))
{
    a += b;
}

assert(arr1 == [7,9,11,13,15]);

// Lockstep also supports iterating with an index variable:
foreach(index, a, b; lockstep(arr1, arr2)) {
    writefln("Index %s:  a = %s, b = %s", index, a, b);
}

struct Recurrence(alias fun, StateType, size_t stateSize);
Recurrence!(fun, CommonType!State, State.length) recurrence(alias fun, State...)(State initial);
Creates a mathematical sequence given the initial values and a recurrence function that computes the next value from the existing values. The sequence comes in the form of an infinite forward range. The type Recurrence itself is seldom used directly; most often, recurrences are obtained by calling the function recurrence.

When calling recurrence, the function that computes the next value is specified as a template argument, and the initial values in the recurrence are passed as regular arguments. For example, in a Fibonacci sequence, there are two initial values (and therefore a state size of 2) because computing the next Fibonacci value needs the past two values.

If the function is passed in string form, the state has name "a" and the zero-based index in the recurrence has name "n". The given string must return the desired value for a[n] given a[n - 1], a[n - 2], a[n - 3],..., a[n - stateSize]. The state size is dictated by the number of arguments passed to the call to recurrence. The Recurrence struct itself takes care of managing the recurrence's state and shifting it appropriately.

Example:
// a[0] = 1, a[1] = 1, and compute a[n+1] = a[n-1] + a[n]
auto fib = recurrence!("a[n-1] + a[n-2]")(1, 1);
// print the first 10 Fibonacci numbers
foreach (e; take(fib, 10)) { writeln(e); }
// print the first 10 factorials
foreach (e; take(recurrence!("a[n-1] * n")(1), 10)) { writeln(e); }

struct Sequence(alias fun, State);
Sequence!(fun, Tuple!State) sequence(alias fun, State...)(State args);
Sequence is similar to Recurrence except that iteration is presented in the so-called closed form. This means that the nth element in the series is computable directly from the initial values and n itself. This implies that the interface offered by Sequence is a random-access range, as opposed to the regular Recurrence, which only offers forward iteration.

The state of the sequence is stored as a Tuple so it can be heterogeneous.

Example:
// a[0] = 1, a[1] = 2, a[n] = a[0] + n * a[1]
auto odds = sequence!("a[0] + n * a[1]")(1, 2);

auto iota(B, E, S)(B begin, E end, S step) if ((isIntegral!(CommonType!(B, E)) || isPointer!(CommonType!(B, E))) && isIntegral!S);
auto iota(B, E)(B begin, E end) if (isFloatingPoint!(CommonType!(B, E)));
auto iota(B, E)(B begin, E end) if (isIntegral!(CommonType!(B, E)) || isPointer!(CommonType!(B, E)));
auto iota(E)(E end);
Returns a range that goes through the numbers begin, begin + step, begin + 2 * step, ..., up to and excluding end. The range offered is a random access range. The two-arguments version has step = 1. If begin < end && step < 0 or begin > end && step > 0 or begin == end, then an empty range is returned.

Throws:
Exception if begin != end && step == 0, an exception is thrown.

Example:
auto r = iota(0, 10, 1);
assert(equal(r, [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9][]));
r = iota(0, 11, 3);
assert(equal(r, [0, 3, 6, 9][]));
assert(r[2] == 6);
auto rf = iota(0.0, 0.5, 0.1);
assert(approxEqual(rf, [0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4]));

enum TransverseOptions: int;
Options for the FrontTransversal and Transversal ranges (below).

assumeJagged
When transversed, the elements of a range of ranges are assumed to have different lengths (e.g. a jagged array).

enforceNotJagged
The transversal enforces that the elements of a range of ranges have all the same length (e.g. an array of arrays, all having the same length). Checking is done once upon construction of the transversal range.

assumeNotJagged
The transversal assumes, without verifying, that the elements of a range of ranges have all the same length. This option is useful if checking was already done from the outside of the range.

struct FrontTransversal(Ror, TransverseOptions opt = TransverseOptions.assumeJagged);
FrontTransversal!(RangeOfRanges, opt) frontTransversal(TransverseOptions opt = TransverseOptions.assumeJagged, RangeOfRanges)(RangeOfRanges rr);
Given a range of ranges, iterate transversally through the first elements of each of the enclosed ranges.

Example:
int[][] x = new int[][2];
x[0] = [1, 2];
x[1] = [3, 4];
auto ror = frontTransversal(x);
assert(equal(ror, [ 1, 3 ][]));

this(RangeOfRanges input);
Construction from an input.

bool empty;
@property ref auto front();
ElementType moveFront();
void popFront();
Forward range primitives.

FrontTransversal save();
Duplicates this frontTransversal. Note that only the encapsulating range of range will be duplicated. Underlying ranges will not be duplicated.

@property ref auto back();
void popBack();
ElementType moveBack();
Bidirectional primitives. They are offered if isBidirectionalRange!RangeOfRanges.

ref auto opIndex(size_t n);
ElementType moveAt(size_t n);
void opIndexAssign(ElementType val, size_t n);
Random-access primitive. It is offered if isRandomAccessRange!RangeOfRanges && (opt == TransverseOptions.assumeNotJagged || opt == TransverseOptions.enforceNotJagged).

typeof(this) opSlice(size_t lower, size_t upper);
Slicing if offered if RangeOfRanges supports slicing and all the conditions for supporting indexing are met.

struct Transversal(Ror, TransverseOptions opt = TransverseOptions.assumeJagged);
Transversal!(RangeOfRanges, opt) transversal(TransverseOptions opt = TransverseOptions.assumeJagged, RangeOfRanges)(RangeOfRanges rr, size_t n);
Given a range of ranges, iterate transversally through the the nth element of each of the enclosed ranges. All elements of the enclosing range must offer random access.

Example:
int[][] x = new int[][2];
x[0] = [1, 2];
x[1] = [3, 4];
auto ror = transversal(x, 1);
assert(equal(ror, [ 2, 4 ][]));

this(RangeOfRanges input, size_t n);
Construction from an input and an index.

bool empty;
@property ref auto front();
E moveFront();
@property auto front(E val);
void popFront();
typeof(this) save();
Forward range primitives.

@property ref auto back();
void popBack();
E moveBack();
@property auto back(E val);
Bidirectional primitives. They are offered if isBidirectionalRange!RangeOfRanges.

ref auto opIndex(size_t n);
E moveAt(size_t n);
void opIndexAssign(E val, size_t n);
size_t length();
alias opDollar = length;
Random-access primitive. It is offered if isRandomAccessRange!RangeOfRanges && (opt == TransverseOptions.assumeNotJagged || opt == TransverseOptions.enforceNotJagged).

typeof(this) opSlice(size_t lower, size_t upper);
Slicing if offered if RangeOfRanges supports slicing and all the conditions for supporting indexing are met.

struct Indexed(Source, Indices) if (isRandomAccessRange!Source && isInputRange!Indices && is(typeof(Source.init[ElementType!Indices.init])));
Indexed!(Source, Indices) indexed(Source, Indices)(Source source, Indices indices);
This struct takes two ranges, source and indices, and creates a view of source as if its elements were reordered according to indices. indices may include only a subset of the elements of source and may also repeat elements.

Source must be a random access range. The returned range will be bidirectional or random-access if Indices is bidirectional or random-access, respectively.

Examples:
auto source = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
auto indices = [4, 3, 1, 2, 0, 4];
auto ind = indexed(source, indices);
assert(equal(ind, [5, 4, 2, 3, 1, 5]));

// When elements of indices are duplicated and Source has lvalue elements,
// these are aliased in ind.
ind[0]++;
assert(ind[0] == 6);
assert(ind[5] == 6);

@property ref auto front();
void popFront();
typeof(this) save();
@property ref auto front(ElementType!Source newVal);
auto moveFront();
@property ref auto back();
void popBack();
@property ref auto back(ElementType!Source newVal);
auto moveBack();
size_t length();
ref auto opIndex(size_t index);
typeof(this) opSlice(size_t a, size_t b);
auto opIndexAssign(ElementType!Source newVal, size_t index);
auto moveAt(size_t index);
Range primitives

Source source();
Returns the source range.

Indices indices();
Returns the indices range.

size_t physicalIndex(size_t logicalIndex);
Returns the physical index into the source range corresponding to a given logical index. This is useful, for example, when indexing an Indexed without adding another layer of indirection.

Examples:
auto ind = indexed([1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 3, 4]);
assert(ind.physicalIndex(0) == 1);

struct Chunks(Source) if (isForwardRange!Source);
Chunks!Source chunks(Source)(Source source, size_t chunkSize) if (isForwardRange!Source);
This range iterates over fixed-sized chunks of size chunkSize of a source range. Source must be a forward range.

If !isInfinite!Source and source.walkLength is not evenly divisible by chunkSize, the back element of this range will contain fewer than chunkSize elements.

Examples:
auto source = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10];
auto chunks = chunks(source, 4);
assert(chunks[0] == [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert(chunks[1] == [5, 6, 7, 8]);
assert(chunks[2] == [9, 10]);
assert(chunks.back == chunks[2]);
assert(chunks.front == chunks[0]);
assert(chunks.length == 3);

this(Source source, size_t chunkSize);
Standard constructor

@property auto front();
void popFront();
bool empty();
typeof(this) save();
Forward range primitives. Always present.

size_t length();
Length. Only if hasLength!Source is true

auto opIndex(size_t index);
typeof(this) opSlice(size_t lower, size_t upper);
Indexing and slicing operations. Provided only if hasSlicing!Source is true.

@property auto back();
void popBack();
Bidirectional range primitives. Provided only if both hasSlicing!Source and hasLength!Source are true.

auto only(Values...)(auto ref Values values) if (!is(CommonType!Values == void) || Values.length == 0);
Assemble values into a range that carries all its elements in-situ.

Useful when a single value or multiple disconnected values must be passed to an algorithm expecting a range, without having to perform dynamic memory allocation.

As copying the range means copying all elements, it can be safely returned from functions. For the same reason, copying the returned range may be expensive for a large number of arguments.

Examples:
assert(equal(only('♡'), "♡"));
assert([1, 2, 3, 4].findSplitBefore(only(3))[0] == [1, 2]);

assert(only("one", "two", "three").joiner(" ").equal("one two three"));

import std.uni;
string title = "The D Programming Language";
assert(filter!isUpper(title).map!only().join(".") == "T.D.P.L");

ElementType!R moveFront(R)(R r);
Moves the front of r out and returns it. Leaves r.front in a destroyable state that does not allocate any resources (usually equal to its .init value).

ElementType!R moveBack(R)(R r);
Moves the back of r out and returns it. Leaves r.back in a destroyable state that does not allocate any resources (usually equal to its .init value).

ElementType!R moveAt(R, I)(R r, I i) if (isIntegral!I);
Moves element at index i of r out and returns it. Leaves r.front in a destroyable state that does not allocate any resources (usually equal to its .init value).

interface InputRange(E);
These interfaces are intended to provide virtual function-based wrappers around input ranges with element type E. This is useful where a well-defined binary interface is required, such as when a DLL function or virtual function needs to accept a generic range as a parameter. Note that isInputRange and friends check for conformance to structural interfaces, not for implementation of these interface types.

Examples:
void useRange(InputRange!int range) {
    // Function body.
}

// Create a range type.
auto squares = map!"a * a"(iota(10));

// Wrap it in an interface.
auto squaresWrapped = inputRangeObject(squares);

// Use it.
useRange(squaresWrapped);

Limitations:
These interfaces are not capable of forwarding ref access to elements.

Infiniteness of the wrapped range is not propagated.

Length is not propagated in the case of non-random access ranges.

See Also:
inputRangeObject

E front();

E moveFront();

void popFront();

bool empty();

int opApply(int delegate(E));
int opApply(int delegate(size_t, E));
foreach iteration uses opApply, since one delegate call per loop iteration is faster than three virtual function calls.

interface ForwardRange(E): InputRange!E;
Interface for a forward range of type E.

ForwardRange!E save();

interface BidirectionalRange(E): ForwardRange!E;
Interface for a bidirectional range of type E.

BidirectionalRange!E save();

E back();

E moveBack();

void popBack();

interface RandomAccessFinite(E): BidirectionalRange!E;
Interface for a finite random access range of type E.

RandomAccessFinite!E save();

E opIndex(size_t);

E moveAt(size_t);

size_t length();

alias opDollar = length;

RandomAccessFinite!E opSlice(size_t, size_t);

interface RandomAccessInfinite(E): ForwardRange!E;
Interface for an infinite random access range of type E.

E moveAt(size_t);

RandomAccessInfinite!E save();

E opIndex(size_t);

interface InputAssignable(E): InputRange!E;
Adds assignable elements to InputRange.

void front(E newVal);

interface ForwardAssignable(E): InputAssignable!E, ForwardRange!E;
Adds assignable elements to ForwardRange.

ForwardAssignable!E save();

interface BidirectionalAssignable(E): ForwardAssignable!E, BidirectionalRange!E;
Adds assignable elements to BidirectionalRange.

BidirectionalAssignable!E save();

void back(E newVal);

interface RandomFiniteAssignable(E): RandomAccessFinite!E, BidirectionalAssignable!E;
Adds assignable elements to RandomAccessFinite.

RandomFiniteAssignable!E save();

void opIndexAssign(E val, size_t index);

interface OutputRange(E);
Interface for an output range of type E. Usage is similar to the InputRange interface and descendants.

void put(E);

class OutputRangeObject(R, E...): staticMap!(OutputRange, E);
Implements the OutputRange interface for all types E and wraps the put method for each type E in a virtual function.

template MostDerivedInputRange(R) if (isInputRange!(Unqual!R))
Returns the interface type that best matches R.

template InputRangeObject(R) if (isInputRange!(Unqual!R))
Implements the most derived interface that R works with and wraps all relevant range primitives in virtual functions. If R is already derived from the InputRange interface, aliases itself away.

InputRangeObject!R inputRangeObject(R)(R range) if (isInputRange!R);
Convenience function for creating an InputRangeObject of the proper type. See InputRange for an example.

template outputRangeObject(E...)
Convenience function for creating an OutputRangeObject with a base range of type R that accepts types E.

Examples:
uint[] outputArray;
auto app = appender(&outputArray);
auto appWrapped = outputRangeObject!(uint, uint[])(app);
static assert(is(typeof(appWrapped) : OutputRange!(uint[])));
static assert(is(typeof(appWrapped) : OutputRange!(uint)));

OutputRangeObject!(R, E) outputRangeObject(R)(R range);

template isTwoWayCompatible(alias fn, T1, T2)
Returns true if fn accepts variables of type T1 and T2 in any order. The following code should compile:
T1 foo();
T2 bar();

fn(foo(), bar());
fn(bar(), foo());

enum SearchPolicy: int;
Policy used with the searching primitives lowerBound, upperBound, and equalRange of SortedRange below.

trot
Searches with a step that is grows linearly (1, 2, 3,...) leading to a quadratic search schedule (indexes tried are 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28,...) Once the search overshoots its target, the remaining interval is searched using binary search. The search is completed in Ο(sqrt(n)) time. Use it when you are reasonably confident that the value is around the beginning of the range.

gallop
Performs a galloping search algorithm, i.e. searches with a step that doubles every time, (1, 2, 4, 8, ...) leading to an exponential search schedule (indexes tried are 0, 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63,...) Once the search overshoots its target, the remaining interval is searched using binary search. A value is found in Ο(log(n)) time.

binarySearch
Searches using a classic interval halving policy. The search starts in the middle of the range, and each search step cuts the range in half. This policy finds a value in Ο(log(n)) time but is less cache friendly than gallop for large ranges. The binarySearch policy is used as the last step of trot, gallop, trotBackwards, and gallopBackwards strategies.

trotBackwards
Similar to trot but starts backwards. Use it when confident that the value is around the end of the range.

gallopBackwards
Similar to gallop but starts backwards. Use it when confident that the value is around the end of the range.

struct SortedRange(Range, alias pred = "a < b") if (isRandomAccessRange!Range && hasLength!Range);
Represents a sorted random-access range. In addition to the regular range primitives, supports fast operations using binary search. To obtain a SortedRange from an unsorted range r, use std.algorithm.sort which sorts r in place and returns the corresponding SortedRange. To construct a SortedRange from a range r that is known to be already sorted, use assumeSorted described below.

Example:
auto a = [ 1, 2, 3, 42, 52, 64 ];
auto r = assumeSorted(a);
assert(r.contains(3));
assert(!r.contains(32));
auto r1 = sort!"a > b"(a);
assert(r1.contains(3));
assert(!r1.contains(32));
assert(r1.release() == [ 64, 52, 42, 3, 2, 1 ]);

SortedRange could accept ranges weaker than random-access, but it is unable to provide interesting functionality for them. Therefore, SortedRange is currently restricted to random-access ranges.

No copy of the original range is ever made. If the underlying range is changed concurrently with its corresponding SortedRange in ways that break its sortedness, SortedRange will work erratically.

Example:
auto a = [ 1, 2, 3, 42, 52, 64 ];
auto r = assumeSorted(a);
assert(r.contains(42));
swap(a[3], a[5]);                      // illegal to break sortedness of original range
assert(!r.contains(42));                // passes although it shouldn't

bool empty();
@property auto save();
@property auto front();
void popFront();
@property auto back();
void popBack();
auto opIndex(size_t i);
auto opSlice(size_t a, size_t b);
size_t length();
Range primitives.

auto release();
Releases the controlled range and returns it.

auto lowerBound(SearchPolicy sp = SearchPolicy.binarySearch, V)(V value) if (isTwoWayCompatible!(predFun, ElementType!Range, V));
This function uses binary search with policy sp to find the largest left subrange on which pred(x, value) is true for all x (e.g., if pred is "less than", returns the portion of the range with elements strictly smaller than value). The search schedule and its complexity are documented in SearchPolicy. See also STL's lower_bound.

Example:
auto a = assumeSorted([ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 ]);
auto p = a.lowerBound(4);
assert(equal(p, [ 0, 1, 2, 3 ]));

auto upperBound(SearchPolicy sp = SearchPolicy.binarySearch, V)(V value) if (isTwoWayCompatible!(predFun, ElementType!Range, V));
This function uses binary search with policy sp to find the largest right subrange on which pred(value, x) is true for all x (e.g., if pred is "less than", returns the portion of the range with elements strictly greater than value). The search schedule and its complexity are documented in SearchPolicy. See also STL's upper_bound.

Example:
auto a = assumeSorted([ 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6 ]);
auto p = a.upperBound(3);
assert(equal(p, [4, 4, 5, 6]));

auto equalRange(V)(V value) if (isTwoWayCompatible!(predFun, ElementType!Range, V));
Returns the subrange containing all elements e for which both pred(e, value) and pred(value, e) evaluate to false (e.g., if pred is "less than", returns the portion of the range with elements equal to value). Uses a classic binary search with interval halving until it finds a value that satisfies the condition, then uses SearchPolicy.gallopBackwards to find the left boundary and SearchPolicy.gallop to find the right boundary. These policies are justified by the fact that the two boundaries are likely to be near the first found value (i.e., equal ranges are relatively small). Completes the entire search in Ο(log(n)) time. See also STL's equal_range.

Example:
auto a = [ 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6 ];
auto r = equalRange(a, 3);
assert(equal(r, [ 3, 3, 3 ]));

auto trisect(V)(V value) if (isTwoWayCompatible!(predFun, ElementType!Range, V));
Returns a tuple r such that r[0] is the same as the result of lowerBound(value), r[1] is the same as the result of equalRange(value), and r[2] is the same as the result of upperBound(value). The call is faster than computing all three separately. Uses a search schedule similar to equalRange. Completes the entire search in Ο(log(n)) time.

Example:
auto a = [ 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6 ];
auto r = assumeSorted(a).trisect(3);
assert(equal(r[0], [ 1, 2 ]));
assert(equal(r[1], [ 3, 3, 3 ]));
assert(equal(r[2], [ 4, 4, 5, 6 ]));

bool contains(V)(V value);
Returns true if and only if value can be found in range, which is assumed to be sorted. Performs Ο(log(r.length)) evaluations of pred. See also STL's binary_search.

auto assumeSorted(alias pred = "a < b", R)(R r) if (isRandomAccessRange!(Unqual!R));
Assumes r is sorted by predicate pred and returns the corresponding SortedRange!(pred, R) having r as support. To keep the checking costs low, the cost is Ο(1) in release mode (no checks for sortedness are performed). In debug mode, a few random elements of r are checked for sortedness. The size of the sample is proportional Ο(log(r.length)). That way, checking has no effect on the complexity of subsequent operations specific to sorted ranges (such as binary search). The probability of an arbitrary unsorted range failing the test is very high (however, an almost-sorted range is likely to pass it). To check for sortedness at cost Ο(n), use std.algorithm.isSorted.

struct RefRange(R) if (isForwardRange!R);
Wrapper which effectively makes it possible to pass a range by reference. Both the original range and the RefRange will always have the exact same elements. Any operation done on one will affect the other. So, for instance, if it's passed to a function which would implicitly copy the original range if it were passed to it, the original range is not copied but is consumed as if it were a reference type.

Note that save works as normal and operates on a new range, so if save is ever called on the RefRange, then no operations on the saved range will affect the original.

Examples:
import std.algorithm;
ubyte[] buffer = [1, 9, 45, 12, 22];
auto found1 = find(buffer, 45);
assert(found1 == [45, 12, 22]);
assert(buffer == [1, 9, 45, 12, 22]);

auto wrapped1 = refRange(&buffer);
auto found2 = find(wrapped1, 45);
assert(*found2.ptr == [45, 12, 22]);
assert(buffer == [45, 12, 22]);

auto found3 = find(wrapped2.save, 22);
assert(*found3.ptr == [22]);
assert(buffer == [45, 12, 22]);

string str = "hello world";
auto wrappedStr = refRange(&str);
assert(str.front == 'h');
str.popFrontN(5);
assert(str == " world");
assert(wrappedStr.front == ' ');
assert(*wrappedStr.ptr == " world");

pure nothrow @safe this(R* range);

auto opAssign(RefRange rhs);
This does not assign the pointer of rhs to this RefRange. Rather it assigns the range pointed to by rhs to the range pointed to by this RefRange. This is because any operation on a RefRange is the same is if it occurred to the original range. The one exception is when a RefRange is assigned null either directly or because rhs is null. In that case, RefRange no longer refers to the original range but is null.

Examples:
ubyte[] buffer1 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
ubyte[] buffer2 = [6, 7, 8, 9, 10];
auto wrapped1 = refRange(&buffer1);
auto wrapped2 = refRange(&buffer2);
assert(wrapped1.ptr is &buffer1);
assert(wrapped2.ptr is &buffer2);
assert(wrapped1.ptr !is wrapped2.ptr);
assert(buffer1 != buffer2);

wrapped1 = wrapped2;

//Everything points to the same stuff as before.
assert(wrapped1.ptr is &buffer1);
assert(wrapped2.ptr is &buffer2);
assert(wrapped1.ptr !is wrapped2.ptr);

//But buffer1 has changed due to the assignment.
assert(buffer1 == [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]);
assert(buffer2 == [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]);

buffer2 = [11, 12, 13, 14, 15];

//Everything points to the same stuff as before.
assert(wrapped1.ptr is &buffer1);
assert(wrapped2.ptr is &buffer2);
assert(wrapped1.ptr !is wrapped2.ptr);

//But buffer2 has changed due to the assignment.
assert(buffer1 == [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]);
assert(buffer2 == [11, 12, 13, 14, 15]);

wrapped2 = null;

//The pointer changed for wrapped2 but not wrapped1.
assert(wrapped1.ptr is &buffer1);
assert(wrapped2.ptr is null);
assert(wrapped1.ptr !is wrapped2.ptr);

//buffer2 is not affected by the assignment.
assert(buffer1 == [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]);
assert(buffer2 == [11, 12, 13, 14, 15]);

auto opAssign(typeof(null) rhs);

inout pure nothrow @safe inout(R*) ptr();
A pointer to the wrapped range.

@property auto front();
const @property auto front();
@property auto front(ElementType!R value);

bool empty();
const bool empty();

void popFront();

@property auto save();
const @property auto save();
auto opSlice();
const auto opSlice();

@property auto back();
const @property auto back();
@property auto back(ElementType!R value);
void popBack();
Only defined if isBidirectionalRange!R is true.

ref auto opIndex(IndexType)(IndexType index);
const ref auto opIndex(IndexType)(IndexType index);
Only defined if isRandomAccesRange!R is true.

auto moveFront();
Only defined if hasMobileElements!R and isForwardRange!R are true.

auto moveBack();
Only defined if hasMobileElements!R and isBidirectionalRange!R are true.

auto moveAt(IndexType)(IndexType index) if (is(typeof((*_range).moveAt(index))));
Only defined if hasMobileElements!R and isRandomAccessRange!R are true.

@property auto length();
const @property auto length();
Only defined if hasLength!R is true.

auto opSlice(IndexType1, IndexType2)(IndexType1 begin, IndexType2 end);
const auto opSlice(IndexType1, IndexType2)(IndexType1 begin, IndexType2 end);
Only defined if hasSlicing!R is true.

auto refRange(R)(R* range) if (isForwardRange!R && !is(R == class));
Helper function for constructing a RefRange.

If the given range is not a forward range or it is a class type (and thus is already a reference type), then the original range is returned rather than a RefRange.