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core.thread

The thread module provides support for thread creation and management.

License:
Boost License 1.0

Authors:
Sean Kelly, Walter Bright, Alex Rønne Petersen

Source:
core/thread.d

alias getpid = core.sys.posix.unistd.getpid;
Returns the process ID of the calling process, which is guaranteed to be unique on the system. This call is always successful.

Example:
writefln("Current process id: %s", getpid());

class ThreadException: object.Exception;
Base class for thread exceptions.

class FiberException: object.Exception;
Base class for fiber exceptions.

class Thread;
This class encapsulates all threading functionality for the D programming language. As thread manipulation is a required facility for garbage collection, all user threads should derive from this class, and instances of this class should never be explicitly deleted. A new thread may be created using either derivation or composition, as in the following example.

Example:
class DerivedThread : Thread
{
    this()
    {
        super( &run );
    }

private :
    void run()
    {
        printf( "Derived thread running.\n" );
    }
}

void threadFunc()
{
    printf( "Composed thread running.\n" );
}

// create instances of each type
Thread derived = new DerivedThread();
Thread composed = new Thread( &threadFunc );

// start both threads
derived.start();
composed.start();

this(void function() fn, size_t sz = 0);
Initializes a thread object which is associated with a static D function.

Parameters:
void function() fn The thread function.
size_t sz The stack size for this thread.

In:
fn must not be null.

this(void delegate() dg, size_t sz = 0);
Initializes a thread object which is associated with a dynamic D function.

Parameters:
void delegate() dg The thread function.
size_t sz The stack size for this thread.

In:
dg must not be null.

final void start();
Starts the thread and invokes the function or delegate passed upon construction.

In:
This routine may only be called once per thread instance.

Throws:
ThreadException if the thread fails to start.

final Throwable join(bool rethrow = true);
Waits for this thread to complete. If the thread terminated as the result of an unhandled exception, this exception will be rethrown.

Parameters:
bool rethrow Rethrow any unhandled exception which may have caused this thread to terminate.

Throws:
ThreadException if the operation fails. Any exception not handled by the joined thread.

Returns:
Any exception not handled by this thread if rethrow = false, null otherwise.

final @property string name();
Gets the user-readable label for this thread.

Returns:
The name of this thread.

final @property void name(string val);
Sets the user-readable label for this thread.

Parameters:
string val The new name of this thread.

final @property bool isDaemon();
Gets the daemon status for this thread. While the runtime will wait for all normal threads to complete before tearing down the process, daemon threads are effectively ignored and thus will not prevent the process from terminating. In effect, daemon threads will be terminated automatically by the OS when the process exits.

Returns:
true if this is a daemon thread.

final @property void isDaemon(bool val);
Sets the daemon status for this thread. While the runtime will wait for all normal threads to complete before tearing down the process, daemon threads are effectively ignored and thus will not prevent the process from terminating. In effect, daemon threads will be terminated automatically by the OS when the process exits.

Parameters:
bool val The new daemon status for this thread.

final @property bool isRunning();
Tests whether this thread is running.

Returns:
true if the thread is running, false if not.

const int PRIORITY_MIN;
The minimum scheduling priority that may be set for a thread. On systems where multiple scheduling policies are defined, this value represents the minimum valid priority for the scheduling policy of the process.

const int PRIORITY_MAX;
The maximum scheduling priority that may be set for a thread. On systems where multiple scheduling policies are defined, this value represents the maximum valid priority for the scheduling policy of the process.

const int PRIORITY_DEFAULT;
The default scheduling priority that is set for a thread. On systems where multiple scheduling policies are defined, this value represents the default priority for the scheduling policy of the process.

final @property int priority();
Gets the scheduling priority for the associated thread.

Returns:
The scheduling priority of this thread.

final @property void priority(int val);
Sets the scheduling priority for the associated thread.

Parameters:
int val The new scheduling priority of this thread.

static void sleep(Duration val);
Suspends the calling thread for at least the supplied period. This may result in multiple OS calls if period is greater than the maximum sleep duration supported by the operating system.

Parameters:
Duration val The minimum duration the calling thread should be suspended.

In:
period must be non-negative.

Example:
Thread.sleep( dur!("msecs")( 50 ) );  // sleep for 50 milliseconds
Thread.sleep( dur!("seconds")( 5 ) ); // sleep for 5 seconds

static void yield();
Forces a context switch to occur away from the calling thread.

static Thread getThis();
Provides a reference to the calling thread.

Returns:
The thread object representing the calling thread. The result of deleting this object is undefined. If the current thread is not attached to the runtime, a null reference is returned.

static Thread[] getAll();
Provides a list of all threads currently being tracked by the system.

Returns:
An array containing references to all threads currently being tracked by the system. The result of deleting any contained objects is undefined.

static int opApply(scope int delegate(ref Thread) dg);
Operates on all threads currently being tracked by the system. The result of deleting any Thread object is undefined.

Parameters:
int delegate(ref Thread) dg The supplied code as a delegate.

Returns:
Zero if all elemented are visited, nonzero if not.

void thread_init();
Initializes the thread module. This function must be called by the garbage collector on startup and before any other thread routines are called.

void thread_term();
Terminates the thread module. No other thread routine may be called afterwards.

bool thread_isMainThread();

Thread thread_attachThis();
Registers the calling thread for use with the D Runtime. If this routine is called for a thread which is already registered, no action is performed.

void thread_detachThis();
void thread_detachByAddr(Thread.ThreadAddr addr);
Deregisters the calling thread from use with the runtime. If this routine is called for a thread which is not registered, no action is performed.

static Thread thread_findByAddr(Thread.ThreadAddr addr);
Search the list of all threads for a thread with the given thread identifier.

Parameters:
Thread.ThreadAddr addr The thread identifier to search for.

Returns:
The thread object associated with the thread identifier, null if not found.

void thread_setThis(Thread t);
Sets the current thread to a specific reference. Only to be used when dealing with externally-created threads (in e.g. C code). The primary use of this function is when Thread.getThis() must return a sensible value in, for example, TLS destructors. In other words, don't touch this unless you know what you're doing.

Parameters:
Thread t A reference to the current thread. May be null.

void thread_joinAll();
Joins all non-daemon threads that are currently running. This is done by performing successive scans through the thread list until a scan consists of only daemon threads.

void thread_suspendAll();
Suspend all threads but the calling thread for "stop the world" garbage collection runs. This function may be called multiple times, and must be followed by a matching number of calls to thread_resumeAll before processing is resumed.

Throws:
ThreadException if the suspend operation fails for a running thread.

void thread_resumeAll();
Resume all threads but the calling thread for "stop the world" garbage collection runs. This function must be called once for each preceding call to thread_suspendAll before the threads are actually resumed.

In:
This routine must be preceded by a call to thread_suspendAll.

Throws:
ThreadException if the resume operation fails for a running thread.

enum ScanType: int;
Indicates the kind of scan being performed by thread_scanAllType.

stack
The stack and/or registers are being scanned.

tls
TLS data is being scanned.

alias ScanAllThreadsFn = void delegate(void*, void*);
alias ScanAllThreadsTypeFn = void delegate(ScanType, void*, void*);
The scanning function.

void thread_scanAllType(scope ScanAllThreadsTypeFn scan);
The main entry point for garbage collection. The supplied delegate will be passed ranges representing both stack and register values.

Parameters:
ScanAllThreadsTypeFn scan The scanner function. It should scan from p1 through p2 - 1.

In:
This routine must be preceded by a call to thread_suspendAll.

void thread_scanAll(scope ScanAllThreadsFn scan);
The main entry point for garbage collection. The supplied delegate will be passed ranges representing both stack and register values.

Parameters:
ScanAllThreadsFn scan The scanner function. It should scan from p1 through p2 - 1.

In:
This routine must be preceded by a call to thread_suspendAll.

void thread_enterCriticalRegion();
Signals that the code following this call is a critical region. Any code in this region must finish running before the calling thread can be suspended by a call to thread_suspendAll.

This function is, in particular, meant to help maintain garbage collector invariants when a lock is not used.

A critical region is exited with thread_exitCriticalRegion.

Warning: Using critical regions is extremely error-prone. For instance, using locks inside a critical region can easily result in a deadlock when another thread holding the lock already got suspended.

The term and concept of a 'critical region' comes from .

In:
The calling thread must be attached to the runtime.

void thread_exitCriticalRegion();
Signals that the calling thread is no longer in a critical region. Following a call to this function, the thread can once again be suspended.

In:
The calling thread must be attached to the runtime.

bool thread_inCriticalRegion();
Returns true if the current thread is in a critical region; otherwise, false.

In:
The calling thread must be attached to the runtime.

enum IsMarked: int;
Indicates whether an address has been marked by the GC.

no
Address is not marked.

yes
Address is marked.

unknown
Address is not managed by the GC.

void thread_processGCMarks(scope IsMarkedDg isMarked);
This routine allows the runtime to process any special per-thread handling for the GC. This is needed for taking into account any memory that is referenced by non-scanned pointers but is about to be freed. That currently means the array append cache.

Parameters:
IsMarkedDg isMarked The function used to check if addr is marked.

In:
This routine must be called just prior to resuming all threads.

void* thread_stackTop();
Returns the stack top of the currently active stack within the calling thread.

In:
The calling thread must be attached to the runtime.

Returns:
The address of the stack top.

void* thread_stackBottom();
Returns the stack bottom of the currently active stack within the calling thread.

In:
The calling thread must be attached to the runtime.

Returns:
The address of the stack bottom.

class ThreadGroup;
This class is intended to simplify certain common programming techniques.

final Thread create(void function() fn);
Creates and starts a new Thread object that executes fn and adds it to the list of tracked threads.

Parameters:
void function() fn The thread function.

Returns:
A reference to the newly created thread.

final Thread create(void delegate() dg);
Creates and starts a new Thread object that executes dg and adds it to the list of tracked threads.

Parameters:
void delegate() dg The thread function.

Returns:
A reference to the newly created thread.

final void add(Thread t);
Add t to the list of tracked threads if it is not already being tracked.

Parameters:
Thread t The thread to add.

In:
t must not be null.

final void remove(Thread t);
Removes t from the list of tracked threads. No operation will be performed if t is not currently being tracked by this object.

Parameters:
Thread t The thread to remove.

In:
t must not be null.

final int opApply(scope int delegate(ref Thread) dg);
Operates on all threads currently tracked by this object.

final void joinAll(bool rethrow = true);
Iteratively joins all tracked threads. This function will block add, remove, and opApply until it completes.

Parameters:
bool rethrow Rethrow any unhandled exception which may have caused the current thread to terminate.

Throws:
Any exception not handled by the joined threads.

class Fiber;
This class provides a cooperative concurrency mechanism integrated with the threading and garbage collection functionality. Calling a fiber may be considered a blocking operation that returns when the fiber yields (via Fiber.yield()). Execution occurs within the context of the calling thread so synchronization is not necessary to guarantee memory visibility so long as the same thread calls the fiber each time. Please note that there is no requirement that a fiber be bound to one specific thread. Rather, fibers may be freely passed between threads so long as they are not currently executing. Like threads, a new fiber thread may be created using either derivation or composition, as in the following example.

Example:
class DerivedFiber : Fiber
{
    this()
    {
        super( &run );
    }

private :
    void run()
    {
        printf( "Derived fiber running.\n" );
    }
}

void fiberFunc()
{
    printf( "Composed fiber running.\n" );
    Fiber.yield();
    printf( "Composed fiber running.\n" );
}

// create instances of each type
Fiber derived = new DerivedFiber();
Fiber composed = new Fiber( &fiberFunc );

// call both fibers once
derived.call();
composed.call();
printf( "Execution returned to calling context.\n" );
composed.call();

// since each fiber has run to completion, each should have state TERM
assert( derived.state == Fiber.State.TERM );
assert( composed.state == Fiber.State.TERM );

Authors:
Based on a design by Mikola Lysenko.

this(void function() fn, size_t sz = PAGESIZE * 4);
Initializes a fiber object which is associated with a static D function.

Parameters:
void function() fn The fiber function.
size_t sz The stack size for this fiber.

In:
fn must not be null.

this(void delegate() dg, size_t sz = PAGESIZE * 4);
Initializes a fiber object which is associated with a dynamic D function.

Parameters:
void delegate() dg The fiber function.
size_t sz The stack size for this fiber.

In:
dg must not be null.

final Object call(bool rethrow = true);
Transfers execution to this fiber object. The calling context will be suspended until the fiber calls Fiber.yield() or until it terminates via an unhandled exception.

Parameters:
bool rethrow Rethrow any unhandled exception which may have caused this fiber to terminate.

In:
This fiber must be in state HOLD.

Throws:
Any exception not handled by the joined thread.

Returns:
Any exception not handled by this fiber if rethrow = false, null otherwise.

final void reset();
final void reset(void function() fn);
final void reset(void delegate() dg);
Resets this fiber so that it may be re-used, optionally with a new function/delegate. This routine may only be called for fibers that have terminated, as doing otherwise could result in scope-dependent functionality that is not executed. Stack-based classes, for example, may not be cleaned up properly if a fiber is reset before it has terminated.

In:
This fiber must be in state TERM.

enum State: int;
A fiber may occupy one of three states: HOLD, EXEC, and TERM. The HOLD state applies to any fiber that is suspended and ready to be called. The EXEC state will be set for any fiber that is currently executing. And the TERM state is set when a fiber terminates. Once a fiber terminates, it must be reset before it may be called again.

HOLD

EXEC

TERM

final const @property State state();
Gets the current state of this fiber.

Returns:
The state of this fiber as an enumerated value.

static void yield();
Forces a context switch to occur away from the calling fiber.

static void yieldAndThrow(Throwable t);
Forces a context switch to occur away from the calling fiber and then throws obj in the calling fiber.

Parameters:
Throwable t The object to throw.

In:
t must not be null.

static Fiber getThis();
Provides a reference to the calling fiber or null if no fiber is currently active.

Returns:
The fiber object representing the calling fiber or null if no fiber is currently active within this thread. The result of deleting this object is undefined.