Improve this page Quickly fork, edit online, and submit a pull request for this page. Requires a signed-in GitHub account. This works well for small changes. If you'd like to make larger changes you may want to consider using local clone. Page wiki View or edit the community-maintained wiki page associated with this page.

std.csv

Implements functionality to read Comma Separated Values and its variants from a input range of dchar.

Comma Separated Values provide a simple means to transfer and store tabular data. It has been common for programs to use their own variant of the CSV format. This parser will loosely follow the RFC-4180. CSV input should adhered to the following criteria, differences from RFC-4180 in parentheses.

Example:
import std.algorithm;
import std.array;
import std.csv;
import std.stdio;
import std.typecons;

void main()
{
    auto text = "Joe,Carpenter,300000\nFred,Blacksmith,400000\r\n";

    foreach(record; csvReader!(Tuple!(string,string,int))(text))
    {
        writefln("%s works as a %s and earns $%d per year",
                 record[0], record[1], record[2]);
    }
}

When an input contains a header the Contents can be specified as an associative array. Passing null to signify that a header is present.

auto text = "Name,Occupation,Salary\r"
    "Joe,Carpenter,300000\nFred,Blacksmith,400000\r\n";

foreach(record; csvReader!(string[string])
        (text, null))
{
    writefln("%s works as a %s and earns $%s per year.",
             record["Name"], record["Occupation"],
             record["Salary"]);
}

This module allows content to be iterated by record stored in a struct, class, associative array, or as a range of fields. Upon detection of an error an CSVException is thrown (can be disabled). csvNextToken has been made public to allow for attempted recovery.

Disabling exceptions will lift many restrictions specified above. A quote can appear in a field if the field was not quoted. If in a quoted field any quote by itself, not at the end of a field, will end processing for that field. The field is ended when there is no input, even if the quote was not closed.

See Also:
Wikipedia Comma-separated values

License:
Boost License 1.0.

Authors:
Jesse Phillips

Source:
std/csv.d

class CSVException: object.Exception;
Exception containing the row and column for when an exception was thrown.

Numbering of both row and col start at one and corresponds to the location in the file rather than any specified header. Special consideration should be made when there is failure to match the header see HeaderMismatchException for details.

When performing type conversions, std.ConvException.ConvException is stored in the next field.

size_t row;

size_t col;

class IncompleteCellException: std.csv.CSVException;
Exception thrown when a Token is identified to not be completed: a quote is found in an unquoted field, data continues after a closing quote, or the quoted field was not closed before data was empty.

dstring partialData;
Data pulled from input before finding a problem

This field is populated when using csvReader but not by csvNextToken as this data will have already been fed to the output range.

class HeaderMismatchException: std.csv.CSVException;
Exception thrown under different conditions based on the type of Contents.

Structure, Class, and Associative Array
  • When a header is provided but a matching column is not found

Other
  • When a header is provided but a matching column is not found
  • Order did not match that found in the input

Since a row and column is not meaningful when a column specified by the header is not found in the data, both row and col will be zero. Otherwise row is always one and col is the first instance found in header that occurred before the previous starting at one.

enum Malformed: int;
Determines the behavior for when an error is detected.

Disabling exception will follow these rules:
  • A quote can appear in a field if the field was not quoted.
  • If in a quoted field any quote by itself, not at the end of a field, will end processing for that field.
  • The field is ended when there is no input, even if the quote was not closed.
  • If the given header does not match the order in the input, the content will return as it is found in the input.
  • If the given header contains columns not found in the input they will be ignored.

ignore
No exceptions are thrown due to incorrect CSV.

throwException
Use exceptions when input has incorrect CSV.

auto csvReader(Contents = string, Malformed ErrorLevel = Malformed.throwException, Range, Separator = char)(Range input, Separator delimiter = ',', Separator quote = '"') if (isInputRange!Range && is(ElementType!Range == dchar) && isSomeChar!Separator && !is(Contents T : T[U], U : string));
Returns an input range for iterating over records found in input.

The Contents of the input can be provided if all the records are the same type such as all integer data:

string str = `76,26,22`;
int[] ans = [76,26,22];
auto records = csvReader!int(str);

foreach(record; records)
{
    assert(equal(record, ans));
}

Example using a struct with modified delimiter:

string str = "Hello;65;63.63\nWorld;123;3673.562";
struct Layout
{
    string name;
    int value;
    double other;
}

auto records = csvReader!Layout(str,';');

foreach(record; records)
{
    writeln(record.name);
    writeln(record.value);
    writeln(record.other);
}

Specifying ErrorLevel as Malformed.ignore will lift restrictions on the format. This example shows that an exception is not thrown when finding a quote in a field not quoted.

string str = "A \" is now part of the data";
auto records = csvReader!(string,Malformed.ignore)(str);
auto record = records.front;

assert(record.front == str);

Returns:
An input range R as defined by std.range.isInputRange. When Contents is a struct, class, or an associative array, the element type of R is Contents, otherwise the element type of R is itself a range with element type Contents.

Throws:
CSVException When a quote is found in an unquoted field, data continues after a closing quote, the quoted field was not closed before data was empty, a conversion failed, or when the row's length does not match the previous length.

HeaderMismatchException when a header is provided but a matching column is not found or the order did not match that found in the input. Read the exception documentation for specific details of when the exception is thrown for different types of Contents.

auto csvReader(Contents = string, Malformed ErrorLevel = Malformed.throwException, Range, Header, Separator = char)(Range input, Header header, Separator delimiter = ',', Separator quote = '"') if (isInputRange!Range && is(ElementType!Range == dchar) && isSomeChar!Separator && isForwardRange!Header && isSomeString!(ElementType!Header));
An optional header can be provided. The first record will be read in as the header. If Contents is a struct then the header provided is expected to correspond to the fields in the struct. When Contents is not a type which can contain the entire record, the header must be provided in the same order as the input or an exception is thrown.

Read only column "b":

string str = "a,b,c\nHello,65,63.63\nWorld,123,3673.562";
auto records = csvReader!int(str, ["b"]);

auto ans = [[65],[123]];
foreach(record; records)
{
    assert(equal(record, ans.front));
    ans.popFront();
}

Read from header of different order:

string str = "a,b,c\nHello,65,63.63\nWorld,123,3673.562";
struct Layout
{
    int value;
    double other;
    string name;
}

auto records = csvReader!Layout(str, ["b","c","a"]);

The header can also be left empty if the input contains a header but all columns should be iterated. The header from the input can always be accessed from the header field.

string str = "a,b,c\nHello,65,63.63\nWorld,123,3673.562";
auto records = csvReader(str, null);

assert(records.header == ["a","b","c"]);

Returns:
An input range R as defined by std.range.isInputRange. When Contents is a struct, class, or an associative array, the element type of R is Contents, otherwise the element type of R is itself a range with element type Contents.

The returned range provides a header field for accessing the header from the input in array form.

string str = "a,b,c\nHello,65,63.63";
auto records = csvReader(str, ["a"]);

assert(records.header == ["a","b","c"]);

Throws:
CSVException When a quote is found in an unquoted field, data continues after a closing quote, the quoted field was not closed before data was empty, a conversion failed, or when the row's length does not match the previous length.

HeaderMismatchException when a header is provided but a matching column is not found or the order did not match that found in the input. Read the exception documentation for specific details of when the exception is thrown for different types of Contents.

void csvNextToken(Range, Malformed ErrorLevel = Malformed.throwException, Separator, Output)(ref Range input, ref Output ans, Separator sep, Separator quote, bool startQuoted = false) if (isSomeChar!Separator && isInputRange!Range && is(ElementType!Range == dchar) && isOutputRange!(Output, dchar));
Lower level control over parsing CSV

This function consumes the input. After each call the input will start with either a delimiter or record break (\n, \r\n, \r) which must be removed for subsequent calls.

string str = "65,63\n123,3673";

auto a = appender!(char[])();

csvNextToken(str,a,',','"');
assert(a.data == "65");
assert(str == ",63\n123,3673");

str.popFront();
a.shrinkTo(0);
csvNextToken(str,a,',','"');
assert(a.data == "63");
assert(str == "\n123,3673");

str.popFront();
a.shrinkTo(0);
csvNextToken(str,a,',','"');
assert(a.data == "123");
assert(str == ",3673");

Parameters:
Range input Any CSV input
Output ans The first field in the input
Separator sep The character to represent a comma in the specification
Separator quote The character to represent a quote in the specification
bool startQuoted Whether the input should be considered to already be in quotes

Throws:
IncompleteCellException When a quote is found in an unquoted field, data continues after a closing quote, or the quoted field was not closed before data was empty.