Ownership and Borrowing in D

Digital Mars logoNearly all non-trivial programs allocate and manage memory. Getting it right is becoming increasingly important, as programs get ever more complex and mistakes get ever more costly. The usual problems are:

  1. memory leaks (failure to free memory when no longer in use)
  2. double frees (freeing memory more than once)
  3. use-after-free (continuing to refer to memory already freed)

The challenge is in keeping track of which pointers are responsible for freeing the memory (i.e. owning the memory), which pointers are merely referring to the memory, where they are, and which are active (in scope).

The common solutions are:

  1. Garbage Collection – The GC owns the memory and periodically scans memory looking for any pointers to that memory. If none are found, the memory is released. This scheme is reliable and in common use in languages like Go and Java. It tends to use much more memory than strictly necessary, have pauses, and slow down code because of inserted write gates.
  2. Reference Counting – The RC object owns the memory and keeps a count of how many pointers point to it. When that count goes to zero, the memory is released. This is also reliable and is commonly used in languages like C++ and ObjectiveC. RC is memory efficient, needing only a slot for the count. The downside of RC is the expense of maintaining the count, building an exception handler to ensure the decrement is done, and the locking for all this needed for objects shared between threads. To regain efficiency, sometimes the programmer will cheat and temporarily refer to the RC object without dealing with the count, engendering a risk that this is not done correctly.
  3. Manual – Manual memory management is exemplified by C’s malloc and free. It is fast and memory efficient, but there’s no language help at all in using them correctly. It’s entirely up to the programmer’s skill and diligence in using it. I’ve been using malloc and free for 35 years, and through bitter and endless experience rarely make a mistake with them anymore. But that’s not the sort of thing a programming shop can rely on, and note I said “rarely” and not “never”.

Solutions 2 and 3 more or less rely on faith in the programmer to do it right. Faith-based systems do not scale well, and memory management issues have proven to be very difficult to audit (so difficult that some coding standards prohibit use of memory allocation).

But there is a fourth way – Ownership and Borrowing. It’s memory efficient, as performant as manual management, and mechanically auditable. It has been recently popularized by the Rust programming language. It has its downsides, too, in the form of a reputation for having to rethink how one composes algorithms and data structures.

The downsides are manageable, and the rest of this article is an outline of how the ownership/borrowing (OB) system works, and how we propose to fit it into D. I had originally thought this would be impossible, but after spending a lot of time thinking about it I’ve found a way to fit it in, much like we’ve fit functional programming into D (with transitive immutability and function purity).


The solution to who owns the memory object is ridiculously simple—there is only one pointer to it, so that pointer must be the owner. It is responsible for releasing the memory, after which it will cease to be valid. It follows that any pointers in the memory object are the owners of what they point to, there are no other pointers into the data structure, and the data structure therefore forms a tree.

It also follows that pointers are not copied, they are moved:

T* f();
void g(T*);
T* p = f();
T* q = p; // value of p is moved to q, not copied
g(p);     // error, p has invalid value

Moving a pointer out of a data structure is not allowed:

struct S { T* p; }
S* f();
S* s = f();
T* q = s.p; // error, can't have two pointers to s.p

Why not just mark s.p as being invalid? The trouble there is one would need to do so with a runtime mark, and this is supposed to be a compile-time solution, so attempting it is simply flagged as an error.

Having an owning pointer fall out of scope is also an error:

void h() {
  T* p = f();
} // error, forgot to release p?

It’s necessary to move the pointer somewhere else:

void g(T*);
void h() {
  T* p = f();
  g(p);  // move to g(), it's now g()'s problem

This neatly solves memory leaks and use-after-free problems. (Hint: to make it clearer, replace f() with malloc(), and g() with free().)

This can all be tracked at compile time through a function by using Data Flow Analysis (DFA) techniques, like those used to compute Common Subexpressions. DFA can unravel whatever rat’s nest of gotos happen to be there.


The ownership system described above is sound, but it is a little too restrictive. Consider:

struct S { void car(); void bar(); }
struct S* f();
S* s = f();
s.car();  // s is moved to car()
s.bar();  // error, s is now invalid

To make it work, s.car() would have to have some way of moving the pointer value back into s when s.car() returns.

In a way, this is how borrowing works. s.car() borrows a copy of s for the duration of the execution of s.car(). s is invalid during that execution and becomes valid again when s.car() returns.

In D, struct member functions take the this by reference, so we can accommodate borrowing through an enhancement: taking an argument by ref borrows it.

D also supports scope pointers, which are also a natural fit for borrowing:

void g(scope T*);
T* f();
T* p = f();
g(p);      // g() borrows p
g(p);      // we can use p again after g() returns

(When functions take arguments by ref, or pointers by scope, they are not allowed to escape the ref or the pointer. This fits right in with borrow semantics.)

Borrowing in this way fulfills the promise that only one pointer to the memory object exists at any one time, so it works.

Borrowing can be enhanced further with a little insight that the ownership system is still safe if there are multiple const pointers to it, as long as there are no mutable pointers. (Const pointers can neither release their memory nor mutate it.) That means multiple const pointers can be borrowed from the owning mutable pointer, as long as the owning mutable pointer cannot be used while the const pointers are active.

For example:

T* f();
void g(T*);
T* p = f();  // p becomes owner
  scope const T* q = p; // borrow const pointer
  scope const T* r = p; // borrow another one
  g(p); // error, p is invalid while q and r are in scope
g(p); // ok


The above can be distilled into the notion that a memory object behaves as if it is in one of two states:

  1. there exists exactly one mutable pointer to it
  2. there exist one or more const pointers to it

The careful reader will notice something peculiar in what I wrote: “as if”. What do I mean by that weasel wording? Is there some skullduggery going on? Why yes, there is. Computer languages are full of “as if” dirty deeds under the hood, like the money you deposit in your bank account isn’t actually there (I apologize if this is a rude shock to anyone), and this isn’t any different. Read on!

But first, a bit more necessary exposition.

Folding Ownership/Borrowing into D

Isn’t this scheme incompatible with the way people normally write D code, and won’t it break pretty much every D program in existence? And not break them in an easily fixed way, but break them so badly they’ll have to redesign their algorithms from the ground up?

Yup, it sure is. Except that D has a (not so) secret weapon: function attributes. It turns out that the semantics for the Ownership/Borrowing (aka OB) system can be run on a per-function basis after the usual semantic pass has been run. The careful reader may have noticed that no new syntax is added, just restrictions on existing code. D has a history of using function attributes to alter the semantics of a function—for example, adding the pure attribute causes a function to behave as if it were pure. To enable OB semantics for a function, an attribute @live is added.

This means that OB can be added to D code incrementally, as needed, and as time and resources permit. It becomes possible to add OB while, and this is critical, keeping your project in a fully functioning, tested, and releasable state. It’s mechanically auditable how much of the project is memory safe in this manner. It adds to the list of D’s many other memory-safe guarantees (such as no pointers to the stack escaping).

As If

Some necessary things cannot be done with strict OB, such as reference counted memory objects. After all, the whole point of an RC object is to have multiple pointers to it. Since RC objects are memory safe (if built correctly), they can work with OB without negatively impinging on memory safety. They just cannot be built with OB. The solution is that D has other attributes for functions, like @system. @system is where much of the safety checking is turned off. Of course, OB will also be turned off in @system code. It’s there that the RC object’s implementation hides from the OB checker.

But in OB code, the RC object looks to the OB checker like it is obeying the rules, so no problemo!

A number of such library types will be needed to successfully use OB.


This article is a basic overview of OB. I am working on a much more comprehensive specification. It’s always possible I’ve missed something and that there’s a hole below the waterline, but so far it’s looking good. It’s a very exciting development for D and I’m looking forward to getting it implemented.

For further discussion and comments from Walter, see the discussion threads on the /r/programming subreddit and at Hacker News.

13 thoughts on “Ownership and Borrowing in D

  1. Reini Urban

    But when assignment changes from copy to move, why not allow both?
    Like a = b (copy), and a <- b (move)
    A copy would increment the refcount and loose sole ownership and it's benefits. But changing it to move would be a too drastic change.

  2. tivadj

    Python’s breaking changes from version 2 to 3 contaminated the strict and faithful minds of language designers.

    Years ago Anders Heilsberg said, that they made a design mistake, by making a pointer – nullable by default. At that moment he said that no breaking changes will percolate the language and this design is frozen into the language forever. In C#8 we have non-nullable pointers by default.

    In 2019 Walter is advocating a breaking change to repurpose “=” to be “move” instead of “copy”.

    The programming language becomes a tool, not a toy.

    1. Hakan Aras

      He explains in the article that this will only affect functions annotated with @live. Did you miss that part?

  3. Tom Ritchford

    The “most common” solution in C++ to memory management is none of your three options – it’s `std::unique_ptr` which is _scoped_ memory management,

    This has none of the downsides of the three strategies you mention. You can’t accidentally forget to free, or double free. There’s no threading issues and no cost for any reference count and no garbage collection.

    You can think of it as a thin wrapper over malloc/free that makes sure you do the right thing every time _at no additional cost._

    It works exactly if your object has a unique owner, which is true over 90% of the time. Only in the minority of cases where you have an object with more than one owner and it is unpredictable who the last owner is should you use reference counted pointers (`std::shared_ptr`).

    1. Jim Oldfield

      You are taking about owning pointers. This language feature also deals with non-owning pointers, which unique_ptr does not help with. This even includes references, because you can always take the address of the reference to get the underlying pointer.

      Even shared_ptr didn’t fully dive the problem. For a start it’s overkill when one of the pointers is the “real” owner (you know that it includes the lifetime of all other pointers). Using a shared pointer in that situation is confusing and incurs a run time cost, while this is a completely compile time check. And there will always be utility functions where you really want to pass a reference rather than a shared pointer, even if you’re prepared to accept the runtime cost, so that it can be used for objects not owned by a shared pointer.

    2. dennis luehring

      Walter is part of the C++ world since 1988+ and works constantly with the best players in the C++ community, you can be sure that he knows smart pointers 🙂

      his ideas isn’t that full far going like rusts ownership system but maybe the idea can grow to that point

      comparing ownership systems with smart-pointers its like comparing assembler with c, yes both can (nearly) reach the same result – but not if you want the safety at compile time, runtime is not a concern here

  4. Kevin Bailey

    I have to say that I was pretty disappointed reading this. I think it’s a lot of wasted effort, when there are better things to be done.

    The causes of memory issues are far more subtler than leaving a function without freeing something. They’re caused when you have a pointer to something that is “never” supposed to disappear, but someday does. They’re caused when you have a call stack that didn’t use to be recursive is someday circular. They’re caused when you have a large network of objects, one of which you lose the ref count for and forget to free.

    The latter is particularly worrisome since the post above says that it won’t address. (It can’t keep track of dynamic ownership.)

    So exactly what sliver of errors does this propose to catch? Just leaving a function without freeing something? Using something after you’ve transferred ownership? Those are solved trivially like Tom mentioned, with a unique_ptr.

    D already has strong object ownership rules. How about spending time getting DIP1000 standardized ? A single how-to on e.g. using D for WebAsm would do far more for adoption than a proposal that just ties our hands.

    1. Sjoerd Nijboer

      I’m not shure if I personally want this for d.
      I think that passing a copy of a pointer to a function is extremely powerfull, and should not be discouraged unless absolutely neccesary.

      Suppose there was the following code

      1: struct S { … int* i; …}
      2: void foo() {
      3: int* int_ptr = cast(int*) malloc (4);
      4: auto s1 = S(int_ptr);
      5: auto s2 = S(int_ptr);
      6: free(int_prt);
      7: }

      This would be impossible with these new rules because any reference to int_ptr would not be valid at this point.
      If we scrap the rules about pointers having move semantics, this code would compile.
      Then I would like to add one more rule
      * A constructor or return statement moves ownership to the calling function.
      This rule moves the place of ownership out of the type, far up in the callstack to a place where the type was constructed. The reason for this is so that pointers can be freed in destructors of types, but also borrowed outside the scope of the type by the caller. After all, the type ultimately doesn’t own the pointer, the callstack does. Therefore the callstack should be responsible of freeing the type through a destructor or a direct or indirect call to free.

      I believe that it should be possible using constant folding to prove that at line 5 the int_ptr is still a valid pointer. and that it is succesfully freed at line 6, and every use after line 6 would be a use after free. We could even prove that if S would implement a destructor that freed i, there would be a double (actually triple) free. I did however took a 30 minute crash course on the internet on this subject yesterday, so I could be totally wrong on this.
      The benefit of this approach is that it could be added to the compiler and lots of existing code could be proven to be correct whitout any code change.

  5. Sakurako Omuro

    void g(scope T*);
    T* f();
    T* p = f();
    g(p); // g() borrows p
    g(p); // we can use p again after g() returns

    what about the multithreading? If “p” should be used in multiple threads. Or something:

    in_bg(p); // in_bg() is non-blocked but borrows p
    g(p); // can we use p here?

    I seem to misunderstand something…

  6. Golden Rockefeller

    Seems similar to c++ unique_ptr, so I have a few questions.

    “Moving a pointer out of a data structure is not allowed:”
    Why not also support move semantics?

    “Const pointers can neither release their memory nor mutate it.”
    But couldn’t the memory be released through the mutable pointer

    Why not partially allow OB semantic in non-@live code with an “owned” or “unique_ptr” attribute? Are there more concerns beyond breaking old code?

    It would be nice to see OB semantics as a way to allocate memory and create new classes without having the new memory be managed by the GC. This can work well with short-lived objects and can be used to allow allocations in @no_gc code (or some equivalent code) with GC.disable to prevent stop-the-world collection without the app’s memory usage growing unbounded. I can see this being useful for soft realtime applications. Is this part of the objective, or am I missing the point?

Comments are closed.