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D Grammar

Lexical Syntax

Refer to the page for lexical syntax.

Type

Type:
    TypeCtorsopt BasicType
    TypeCtorsopt BasicType Declarator2

BasicType:
    BasicTypeX
    . IdentifierList
    IdentifierList
    Typeof
    Typeof . IdentifierList
    TypeCtor ( Type )

BasicTypeX:
    bool
    byte
    ubyte
    short
    ushort
    int
    uint
    long
    ulong
    char
    wchar
    dchar
    float
    double
    real
    ifloat
    idouble
    ireal
    cfloat
    cdouble
    creal
    void

BasicType2:
    *
    [ ]
    [ AssignExpression ]
    [ AssignExpression .. AssignExpression ]
    [ Type ]
    delegate Parameters MemberFunctionAttributesopt
    function Parameters FunctionAttributesopt

IdentifierList:
    Identifier
    Identifier . IdentifierList
    TemplateInstance
    TemplateInstance . IdentifierList

TypeCtors:
    TypeCtor
    TypeCtor TypeCtors

TypeCtor:
    const
    immutable
    inout
    shared

Typeof:
    typeof ( Expression )
    typeof ( return )

Expression

Expression:
    CommaExpression

CommaExpression:
    AssignExpression
    AssignExpression , CommaExpression
AssignExpression:
    ConditionalExpression
    ConditionalExpression = AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression += AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression -= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression *= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression /= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression %= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression &= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression |= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression ^= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression ~= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression <<= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression >>= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression >>>= AssignExpression
    ConditionalExpression ^^= AssignExpression
ConditionalExpression:
    OrOrExpression
    OrOrExpression ? Expression : ConditionalExpression
OrOrExpression:
    AndAndExpression
    OrOrExpression || AndAndExpression
AndAndExpression:
    OrExpression
    AndAndExpression && OrExpression
    CmpExpression
    AndAndExpression && CmpExpression
OrExpression:
    XorExpression
    OrExpression | XorExpression
XorExpression:
    AndExpression
    XorExpression ^ AndExpression
AndExpression:
    ShiftExpression
    AndExpression & ShiftExpression
CmpExpression:
    ShiftExpression
    EqualExpression
    IdentityExpression
    RelExpression
    InExpression
EqualExpression:
    ShiftExpression == ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression != ShiftExpression
IdentityExpression:
    ShiftExpression is ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !is ShiftExpression
RelExpression:
    ShiftExpression < ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression <= ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression > ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression >= ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !<>= ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !<> ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression <> ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression <>= ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !> ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !>= ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !< ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !<= ShiftExpression
InExpression:
    ShiftExpression in ShiftExpression
    ShiftExpression !in ShiftExpression
ShiftExpression:
    AddExpression
    ShiftExpression << AddExpression
    ShiftExpression >> AddExpression
    ShiftExpression >>> AddExpression
AddExpression:
    MulExpression
    AddExpression + MulExpression
    AddExpression - MulExpression
    CatExpression
CatExpression:
    AddExpression ~ MulExpression
MulExpression:
    UnaryExpression
    MulExpression * UnaryExpression
    MulExpression / UnaryExpression
    MulExpression % UnaryExpression
UnaryExpression:
    & UnaryExpression
    ++ UnaryExpression
    -- UnaryExpression
    * UnaryExpression
    - UnaryExpression
    + UnaryExpression
    ! UnaryExpression
    ComplementExpression
    ( Type ) . Identifier
    ( Type ) . TemplateInstance
    DeleteExpression
    CastExpression
    PowExpression
ComplementExpression:
    ~ UnaryExpression
NewExpression:
    new AllocatorArgumentsopt Type
    NewExpressionWithArgs

NewExpressionWithArgs:
    new AllocatorArgumentsopt Type [ AssignExpression ]
    new AllocatorArgumentsopt Type ( ArgumentListopt )
    NewAnonClassExpression

AllocatorArguments:
    ( ArgumentListopt )

ArgumentList:
    AssignExpression
    AssignExpression ,
    AssignExpression , ArgumentList
NewAnonClassExpression:
    new AllocatorArgumentsopt class ClassArgumentsopt SuperClassopt Interfacesopt AggregateBody

ClassArguments:
    ( ArgumentListopt )
DeleteExpression:
    delete UnaryExpression
CastExpression:
    cast ( Type ) UnaryExpression
    cast ( TypeCtorsopt ) UnaryExpression
PowExpression:
    PostfixExpression
    PostfixExpression ^^ UnaryExpression
PostfixExpression:
    PrimaryExpression
    PostfixExpression . Identifier
    PostfixExpression . TemplateInstance
    PostfixExpression . NewExpression
    PostfixExpression ++
    PostfixExpression --
    PostfixExpression ( ArgumentListopt )
    TypeCtorsopt BasicType ( ArgumentListopt )
    IndexExpression
    SliceExpression
IndexExpression:
    PostfixExpression [ ArgumentList ]
SliceExpression:
    PostfixExpression [ ]
    PostfixExpression [ AssignExpression .. AssignExpression ]
PrimaryExpression:
    Identifier
    . Identifier
    TemplateInstance
    . TemplateInstance
    this
    super
    null
    true
    false
    $
    IntegerLiteral
    FloatLiteral
    CharacterLiteral
    StringLiterals
    ArrayLiteral
    AssocArrayLiteral
    FunctionLiteral
    AssertExpression
    MixinExpression
    ImportExpression
    NewExpressionWithArgs
    BasicTypeX . Identifier
    Typeof
    TypeidExpression
    IsExpression
    ( Expression )
    TraitsExpression
    SpecialKeyword
StringLiterals:
    StringLiteral
    StringLiterals StringLiteral
ArrayLiteral:
    [ ArgumentListopt ]
AssocArrayLiteral:
    [ KeyValuePairs ]

KeyValuePairs:
    KeyValuePair
    KeyValuePair , KeyValuePairs

KeyValuePair:
    KeyExpression : ValueExpression

KeyExpression:
    AssignExpression

ValueExpression:
    AssignExpression
FunctionLiteral:
    function Typeopt ParameterAttributes opt FunctionBody
    delegate Typeopt ParameterAttributes opt FunctionBody
    ParameterAttributes FunctionBody
    FunctionBody
    Lambda
ParameterAttributes:
    Parameters
    Parameters FunctionAttributes

Lambda:
    Identifier => AssignExpression
    functionopt ParameterAttributes => AssignExpression
    delegateopt ParameterAttributes => AssignExpression
AssertExpression:
    assert ( AssignExpression )
    assert ( AssignExpression , AssignExpression )
MixinExpression:
    mixin ( AssignExpression )
ImportExpression:
    import ( AssignExpression )
TypeidExpression:
    typeid ( Type )
    typeid ( Expression )
IsExpression:
    is ( Type )
    is ( Type : TypeSpecialization )
    is ( Type == TypeSpecialization )
    is ( Type : TypeSpecialization , TemplateParameterList )
    is ( Type == TypeSpecialization , TemplateParameterList )
    is ( Type Identifier )
    is ( Type Identifier : TypeSpecialization )
    is ( Type Identifier == TypeSpecialization )
    is ( Type Identifier : TypeSpecialization , TemplateParameterList )
    is ( Type Identifier == TypeSpecialization , TemplateParameterList )

TypeSpecialization:
    Type
    struct
    union
    class
    interface
    enum
    function
    delegate
    super
    const
    immutable
    inout
    shared
    return
    __parameters
TraitsExpression:
    __traits ( TraitsKeyword , TraitsArguments )

TraitsKeyword:
    isAbstractClass
    isArithmetic
    isAssociativeArray
    isFinalClass
    isPOD
    isNested
    isFloating
    isIntegral
    isScalar
    isStaticArray
    isUnsigned
    isVirtualFunction
    isVirtualMethod
    isAbstractFunction
    isFinalFunction
    isStaticFunction
    isOverrideFunction
    isRef
    isOut
    isLazy
    hasMember
    identifier
    getAliasThis
    getAttributes
    getMember
    getOverloads
    getProtection
    getVirtualFunctions
    getVirtualMethods
    getUnitTests
    parent
    classInstanceSize
    getVirtualIndex
    allMembers
    derivedMembers
    isSame
    compiles

TraitsArguments:
    TraitsArgument
    TraitsArgument , TraitsArguments

TraitsArgument:
    AssignExpression
    Type
SpecialKeyword:
    __FILE__
    __MODULE__
    __LINE__
    __FUNCTION__
    __PRETTY_FUNCTION__

Statement

Statement:
    ;
    NonEmptyStatement
    ScopeBlockStatement

NoScopeNonEmptyStatement:
    NonEmptyStatement
    BlockStatement

NoScopeStatement:
    ;
    NonEmptyStatement
    BlockStatement

NonEmptyOrScopeBlockStatement:
    NonEmptyStatement
    ScopeBlockStatement

NonEmptyStatement:
    NonEmptyStatementNoCaseNoDefault
    CaseStatement
    CaseRangeStatement
    DefaultStatement

NonEmptyStatementNoCaseNoDefault:
    LabeledStatement
    ExpressionStatement
    DeclarationStatement
    IfStatement
    WhileStatement
    DoStatement
    ForStatement
    ForeachStatement
    SwitchStatement
    FinalSwitchStatement
    ContinueStatement
    BreakStatement
    ReturnStatement
    GotoStatement
    WithStatement
    SynchronizedStatement
    TryStatement
    ScopeGuardStatement
    ThrowStatement
    AsmStatement
    PragmaStatement
    MixinStatement
    ForeachRangeStatement
    ConditionalStatement
    StaticAssert
    TemplateMixin
    ImportDeclaration
ScopeStatement:
    NonEmptyStatement
    BlockStatement
ScopeBlockStatement:
    BlockStatement
LabeledStatement:
    Identifier :
    Identifier : NoScopeStatement
    Identifier : Statement
BlockStatement:
    { }
    { StatementList }

StatementList:
    Statement
    Statement StatementList
ExpressionStatement:
    Expression ;
DeclarationStatement:
    Declaration
IfStatement:
    if ( IfCondition ) ThenStatement
    if ( IfCondition ) ThenStatement else ElseStatement

IfCondition:
    Expression
    auto Identifier = Expression
    TypeCtors Identifier = Expression
    TypeCtorsopt BasicType Declarator = Expression

ThenStatement:
    ScopeStatement

ElseStatement:
    ScopeStatement
WhileStatement:
    while ( Expression ) ScopeStatement
DoStatement:
    do ScopeStatement  while ( Expression ) ;
ForStatement:
    for ( Initialize Testopt ; Incrementopt ) ScopeStatement

Initialize:
    ;
    NoScopeNonEmptyStatement

Test:
    Expression

Increment:
    Expression
ForeachStatement:
    Foreach ( ForeachTypeList ; ForeachAggregate ) NoScopeNonEmptyStatement

Foreach:
    foreach
    foreach_reverse

ForeachTypeList:
    ForeachType
    ForeachType , ForeachTypeList

ForeachType:
    refopt TypeCtorsopt BasicType Declarator
    refopt TypeCtorsopt Identifier

ForeachAggregate:
    Expression
ForeachRangeStatement:
    Foreach ( ForeachType ; LwrExpression .. UprExpression ) ScopeStatement

LwrExpression:
    Expression

UprExpression:
    Expression
SwitchStatement:
    switch ( Expression ) ScopeStatement

CaseStatement:
    case ArgumentList : ScopeStatementList

CaseRangeStatement:
    case FirstExp : .. case LastExp : ScopeStatementList

FirstExp:
    AssignExpression

LastExp:
    AssignExpression

DefaultStatement:
    default : ScopeStatementList

ScopeStatementList:
    StatementListNoCaseNoDefault

StatementListNoCaseNoDefault:
    StatementNoCaseNoDefault
    StatementNoCaseNoDefault StatementListNoCaseNoDefault

StatementNoCaseNoDefault:
    ;
    NonEmptyStatementNoCaseNoDefault
    ScopeBlockStatement
FinalSwitchStatement:
    final switch ( Expression ) ScopeStatement
ContinueStatement:
    continue Identifieropt ;
BreakStatement:
    break Identifieropt ;
ReturnStatement:
    return Expressionopt ;
GotoStatement:
    goto Identifier ;
    goto default ;
    goto case ;
    goto case Expression ;
WithStatement:
    with ( Expression ) ScopeStatement
    with ( Symbol ) ScopeStatement
    with ( TemplateInstance ) ScopeStatement
SynchronizedStatement:
    synchronized ScopeStatement
    synchronized ( Expression ) ScopeStatement
TryStatement:
    try ScopeStatement Catches
    try ScopeStatement Catches FinallyStatement
    try ScopeStatement FinallyStatement

Catches:
    LastCatch
    Catch
    Catch Catches

LastCatch:
    catch NoScopeNonEmptyStatement

Catch:
    catch ( CatchParameter ) NoScopeNonEmptyStatement

CatchParameter:
    BasicType Identifier

FinallyStatement:
    finally NoScopeNonEmptyStatement
ThrowStatement:
    throw Expression ;
ScopeGuardStatement:
    scope(exit) NonEmptyOrScopeBlockStatement
    scope(success) NonEmptyOrScopeBlockStatement
    scope(failure) NonEmptyOrScopeBlockStatement
AsmStatement:
    asm { AsmInstructionListopt }

AsmInstructionList:
    AsmInstruction ;
    AsmInstruction ; AsmInstructionList
PragmaStatement:
    Pragma NoScopeStatement
MixinStatement:
    mixin ( AssignExpression ) ;

Iasm

AsmInstruction:
    Identifier : AsmInstruction
    align IntegerExpression
    even
    naked
    db Operands
    ds Operands
    di Operands
    dl Operands
    df Operands
    dd Operands
    de Operands
    Opcode
    Opcode Operands

Operands:
    Operand
    Operand , Operands
IntegerExpression:
    IntegerLiteral
    Identifier
Register:
    AL AH AX EAX
    BL BH BX EBX
    CL CH CX ECX
    DL DH DX EDX
    BP EBP
    SP ESP
    DI EDI
    SI ESI
    ES CS SS DS GS FS
    CR0 CR2 CR3 CR4
    DR0 DR1 DR2 DR3 DR6 DR7
    TR3 TR4 TR5 TR6 TR7
    ST
    ST(0) ST(1) ST(2) ST(3) ST(4) ST(5) ST(6) ST(7)
    MM0  MM1  MM2  MM3  MM4  MM5  MM6  MM7
    XMM0 XMM1 XMM2 XMM3 XMM4 XMM5 XMM6 XMM7
Register64:
    RAX  RBX  RCX  RDX
    BPL  RBP
    SPL  RSP
    DIL  RDI
    SIL  RSI
    R8B  R8W  R8D  R8
    R9B  R9W  R9D  R9
    R10B R10W R10D R10
    R11B R11W R11D R11
    R12B R12W R12D R12
    R13B R13W R13D R13
    R14B R14W R14D R14
    R15B R15W R15D R15
    XMM8 XMM9 XMM10 XMM11 XMM12 XMM13 XMM14 XMM15
    YMM0 YMM1 YMM2  YMM3  YMM4  YMM5  YMM6  YMM7
    YMM8 YMM9 YMM10 YMM11 YMM12 YMM13 YMM14 YMM15
Operand:
    AsmExp

AsmExp:
    AsmLogOrExp
    AsmLogOrExp ? AsmExp : AsmExp

AsmLogOrExp:
    AsmLogAndExp
    AsmLogAndExp || AsmLogAndExp

AsmLogAndExp:
    AsmOrExp
    AsmOrExp && AsmOrExp

AsmOrExp:
    AsmXorExp
    AsmXorExp | AsmXorExp

AsmXorExp:
    AsmAndExp
    AsmAndExp ^ AsmAndExp

AsmAndExp:
    AsmEqualExp
    AsmEqualExp & AsmEqualExp

AsmEqualExp:
    AsmRelExp
    AsmRelExp == AsmRelExp
    AsmRelExp != AsmRelExp

AsmRelExp:
    AsmShiftExp
    AsmShiftExp < AsmShiftExp
    AsmShiftExp <= AsmShiftExp
    AsmShiftExp > AsmShiftExp
    AsmShiftExp >= AsmShiftExp

AsmShiftExp:
    AsmAddExp
    AsmAddExp << AsmAddExp
    AsmAddExp >> AsmAddExp
    AsmAddExp >>> AsmAddExp

AsmAddExp:
    AsmMulExp
    AsmMulExp + AsmMulExp
    AsmMulExp - AsmMulExp

AsmMulExp:
    AsmBrExp
    AsmBrExp * AsmBrExp
    AsmBrExp / AsmBrExp
    AsmBrExp % AsmBrExp

AsmBrExp:
    AsmUnaExp
    AsmBrExp [ AsmExp ]

AsmUnaExp:
    AsmTypePrefix AsmExp
    offsetof AsmExp
    seg AsmExp
    + AsmUnaExp
    - AsmUnaExp
    ! AsmUnaExp
    ~ AsmUnaExp
    AsmPrimaryExp

AsmPrimaryExp:
    IntegerLiteral
    FloatLiteral
    __LOCAL_SIZE
    $
    Register
    Register64
    DotIdentifier

DotIdentifier:
    Identifier
    Identifier . DotIdentifier
AsmTypePrefix:
    near ptr
    far ptr
    byte ptr
    short ptr
    int ptr
    word ptr
    dword ptr
    qword ptr
    float ptr
    double ptr
    real ptr

Declaration

Declaration:
    AliasDeclaration
    AggregateDeclaration
    EnumDeclaration
    ImportDeclaration
    Decl
AliasDeclaration:
    alias StorageClassesopt BasicType Declarator
    alias AliasDeclarationX ;

AliasDeclarationX:
    Identifier TemplateParametersopt = StorageClassesopt Type
    AliasDeclarationX , Identifier TemplateParametersopt = StorageClassesopt Type
AutoDeclaration:
    StorageClasses AutoDeclarationX ;

AutoDeclarationX:
    Identifier TemplateParametersopt = Initializer
    AutoDeclarationX , Identifier TemplateParametersopt = Initializer
Decl:
    StorageClassesopt BasicType Declarators ;
    StorageClassesopt BasicType Declarator FunctionBody
    AutoDeclaration

Declarators:
    DeclaratorInitializer
    DeclaratorInitializer , DeclaratorIdentifierList

DeclaratorInitializer:
    Declarator
    Declarator = Initializer

DeclaratorIdentifierList:
    DeclaratorIdentifier
    DeclaratorIdentifier , DeclaratorIdentifierList

DeclaratorIdentifier:
    Identifier
    Identifier = Initializer

Declarator:
    BasicType2opt ( Declarator ) DeclaratorSuffixesopt
    BasicType2opt Identifier DeclaratorSuffixesopt

Declarator2:
    BasicType2opt DeclaratorSuffixesopt
    BasicType2opt ( Declarator2 ) DeclaratorSuffixesopt

DeclaratorSuffixes:
    DeclaratorSuffix
    DeclaratorSuffix DeclaratorSuffixes

DeclaratorSuffix:
    [ ]
    [ AssignExpression ]
    [ Type ]
    Parameters MemberFunctionAttributesopt
    TemplateParameters Parameters MemberFunctionAttributesopt Constraintopt
StorageClasses:
    StorageClass
    StorageClass StorageClasses

StorageClass:
    LinkageAttribute
    AlignAttribute
    deprecated
    enum
    static
    extern
    abstract
    final
    override
    synchronized
    auto
    scope
    const
    immutable
    inout
    shared
    __gshared
    Property
    nothrow
    pure
    ref
Initializer:
    VoidInitializer
    NonVoidInitializer

VoidInitializer:
    void

NonVoidInitializer:
    ExpInitializer:
    ArrayInitializer
    StructInitializer

ExpInitializer:
    AssignExpression

ArrayInitializer:
    [ ArrayMemberInitializationsopt ]

ArrayMemberInitializations:
    ArrayMemberInitialization
    ArrayMemberInitialization ,
    ArrayMemberInitialization , ArrayMemberInitializations

ArrayMemberInitialization:
    NonVoidInitializer
    AssignExpression : NonVoidInitializer

StructInitializer:
    { StructMemberInitializersopt }

StructMemberInitializers:
    StructMemberInitializer
    StructMemberInitializer ,
    StructMemberInitializer , StructMemberInitializers

StructMemberInitializer:
    NonVoidInitializer
    Identifier : NonVoidInitializer

Function

Parameters:
    ( ParameterListopt )

ParameterList:
    Parameter
    Parameter , ParameterList
    ...

Parameter:
    InOutopt BasicType Declarator
    InOutopt BasicType Declarator ...
    InOutopt BasicType Declarator = DefaultInitializerExpression
    InOutopt Type
    InOutopt Type ...

InOut:
    InOutX
    InOut InOutX

InOutX:
    auto
    TypeCtor
    final
    in
    lazy
    out
    ref
    scope

FunctionAttributes:
    FunctionAttribute
    FunctionAttribute FunctionAttributes

FunctionAttribute:
    nothrow
    pure
    Property

MemberFunctionAttributes:
    MemberFunctionAttribute
    MemberFunctionAttribute MemberFunctionAttributes

MemberFunctionAttribute:
    const
    immutable
    inout
    shared
    FunctionAttribute
DefaultInitializerExpression:
    AssignExpression
    SpecialKeyword
FunctionBody:
    BlockStatement
    BodyStatement
    InStatement BodyStatement
    OutStatement BodyStatement
    InStatement OutStatement BodyStatement
    OutStatement InStatement BodyStatement

InStatement:
    in BlockStatement

OutStatement:
    out BlockStatement
    out ( Identifier ) BlockStatement

BodyStatement:
    body BlockStatement
Constructor:
    this Parameters MemberFunctionAttributesopt ;
    this Parameters MemberFunctionAttributesopt FunctionBody
    ConstructorTemplate

ConstructorTemplate:
    this TemplateParameters Parameters MemberFunctionAttributesopt Constraintopt ;
    this TemplateParameters Parameters MemberFunctionAttributesopt Constraintopt FunctionBody

Destructor:
    ~ this ( ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt ;
    ~ this ( ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt FunctionBody

Postblit:
    this ( this ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt ;
    this ( this ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt FunctionBody

Allocator:
    new Parameters ;
    new Parameters FunctionBody

Deallocator:
    delete Parameters ;
    delete Parameters FunctionBody

Invariant:
    invariant ( ) BlockStatement

UnitTest:
    unittest FunctionBody
StaticConstructor:
    static this ( ) ;
    static this ( ) FunctionBody

StaticDestructor:
    static ~ this ( ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt ;
    static ~ this ( ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt FunctionBody

SharedStaticConstructor:
    shared static this ( ) ;
    shared static this ( ) FunctionBody

SharedStaticDestructor:
    shared static ~ this ( ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt ;
    shared static ~ this ( ) MemberFunctionAttributesopt FunctionBody

Aggregate

AggregateDeclaration:
    ClassDeclaration
    InterfaceDeclaration
    StructDeclaration
    UnionDeclaration

ClassDeclaration:
    class Identifier ;
    class Identifier BaseClassListopt AggregateBody
    ClassTemplateDeclaration

ClassTemplateDeclaration:
    class Identifier TemplateParameters Constraintopt BaseClassListopt AggregateBody
    class Identifier TemplateParameters BaseClassList Constraint AggregateBody

InterfaceDeclaration:
    interface Identifier ;
    interface Identifier BaseInterfaceListopt AggregateBody
    InterfaceTemplateDeclaration

InterfaceTemplateDeclaration:
    interface Identifier TemplateParameters Constraintopt BaseInterfaceListopt AggregateBody
    interface Identifier TemplateParameters BaseInterfaceList Constraint AggregateBody

StructDeclaration:
    struct Identifier ;
    struct Identifier AggregateBody
    StructTemplateDeclaration
    AnonStructDeclaration

StructTemplateDeclaration:
    struct Identifier TemplateParameters Constraintopt AggregateBody

AnonStructDeclaration:
    struct AggregateBody

UnionDeclaration:
    union Identifier ;
    union Identifier AggregateBody
    UnionTemplateDeclaration
    AnonUnionDeclaration

UnionTemplateDeclaration:
    union Identifier TemplateParameters Constraintopt AggregateBody

AnonUnionDeclaration:
    union AggregateBody

AggregateBody:
    { DeclDefsopt }
BaseClassList:
    : SuperClass
    : SuperClass , Interfaces
    : Interfaces

BaseInterfaceList:
    : Interfaces

SuperClass:
    Identifier

Interfaces:
    Interface
    Interface , Interfaces

Interface:
    Identifier
AliasThis:
    alias Identifier this ;

Enum

EnumDeclaration:
    enum EnumTag EnumBody
    enum EnumBody
    enum EnumTag : EnumBaseType EnumBody
    enum : EnumBaseType EnumBody

EnumTag:
    Identifier

EnumBaseType:
    Type

EnumBody:
    EmptyEnumBody
    EnumMembersBody

EmptyEnumBody:
    ;

EnumMembersBody:
    { EnumMembers }

EnumMembers:
    EnumMember
    EnumMember ,
    EnumMember , EnumMembers

EnumMember:
    Identifier
    Identifier = AssignExpression
    Type Identifier = AssignExpression

Template

TemplateDeclaration:
    template Identifier TemplateParameters Constraintopt { DeclDefsopt }

TemplateParameters:
    ( TemplateParameterListopt )

TemplateParameterList:
    TemplateParameter
    TemplateParameter ,
    TemplateParameter , TemplateParameterList

TemplateParameter:
    TemplateTypeParameter
    TemplateValueParameter
    TemplateAliasParameter
    TemplateTupleParameter
    TemplateThisParameter

Constraint:
    if ( Expression )
TemplateInstance:
    Identifier TemplateArguments

TemplateArguments:
    ! ( TemplateArgumentListopt )
    ! TemplateSingleArgument

TemplateArgumentList:
    TemplateArgument
    TemplateArgument ,
    TemplateArgument , TemplateArgumentList

TemplateArgument:
    Type
    AssignExpression
    Symbol

Symbol:
    SymbolTail
    . SymbolTail

SymbolTail:
    Identifier
    Identifier . SymbolTail
    TemplateInstance
    TemplateInstance . SymbolTail

TemplateSingleArgument:
    Identifier
    BasicTypeX
    CharacterLiteral
    StringLiteral
    IntegerLiteral
    FloatLiteral
    true
    false
    null
    this
    SpecialKeyword
TemplateTypeParameter:
    Identifier
    Identifier TemplateTypeParameterSpecialization
    Identifier TemplateTypeParameterDefault
    Identifier TemplateTypeParameterSpecialization TemplateTypeParameterDefault

TemplateTypeParameterSpecialization:
    : Type

TemplateTypeParameterDefault:
    = Type
TemplateThisParameter:
    this TemplateTypeParameter
TemplateValueParameter:
    BasicType Declarator
    BasicType Declarator TemplateValueParameterSpecialization
    BasicType Declarator TemplateValueParameterDefault
    BasicType Declarator TemplateValueParameterSpecialization TemplateValueParameterDefault

TemplateValueParameterSpecialization:
    : ConditionalExpression

TemplateValueParameterDefault:
    = AssignExpression
    = SpecialKeyword
TemplateAliasParameter:
    alias Identifier TemplateAliasParameterSpecializationopt TemplateAliasParameterDefaultopt
    alias BasicType Declarator TemplateAliasParameterSpecializationopt TemplateAliasParameterDefaultopt

TemplateAliasParameterSpecialization:
    : Type
    : ConditionalExpression

TemplateAliasParameterDefault:
    = Type
    = ConditionalExpression
TemplateTupleParameter:
    Identifier ...
TemplateMixinDeclaration:
    mixin template Identifier TemplateParameters Constraintopt { DeclDefsopt }

TemplateMixin:
    mixin MixinTemplateName TemplateArgumentsopt Identifieropt ;

MixinTemplateName:
    . QualifiedIdentifierList
    QualifiedIdentifierList
    Typeof . QualifiedIdentifierList

QualifiedIdentifierList:
    Identifier
    Identifier . QualifiedIdentifierList
    TemplateInstance . QualifiedIdentifierList

Attribute

AttributeSpecifier:
    Attribute :
    Attribute DeclarationBlock

Attribute:
    LinkageAttribute
    AlignAttribute
    DeprecatedAttribute
    ProtectionAttribute
    Pragma
    static
    extern
    abstract
    final
    override
    synchronized
    auto
    scope
    const
    immutable
    inout
    shared
    __gshared
    Property
    nothrow
    pure
    ref

DeclarationBlock:
    DeclDef
    { DeclDefsopt }
LinkageAttribute:
    extern ( LinkageType )
    extern ( C++, IdentifierList )

LinkageType:
    C
    C++
    D
    Windows
    Pascal
    System
AlignAttribute:
    align
    align ( IntegerLiteral )
DeprecatedAttribute:
    deprecated
    deprecated ( StringLiteral )
ProtectionAttribute:
    private
    package
    package ( (GLINK IdentifierList) )
    protected
    public
    export
Property:
    @ PropertyIdentifier
    UserDefinedAttribute

PropertyIdentifier:
    property
    safe
    trusted
    system
    disable
    nogc

UserDefinedAttribute:
    @ ( ArgumentList )
    @ Identifier
    @ Identifier ( ArgumentListopt )
Pragma:
    pragma ( Identifier )
    pragma ( Identifier , ArgumentList )

Conditional

ConditionalDeclaration:
    Condition DeclarationBlock
    Condition DeclarationBlock else DeclarationBlock
    Condition : DeclDefsopt
    Condition DeclarationBlock else : DeclDefsopt

ConditionalStatement:
    Condition NoScopeNonEmptyStatement
    Condition NoScopeNonEmptyStatement else NoScopeNonEmptyStatement
Condition:
    VersionCondition
    DebugCondition
    StaticIfCondition

VersionCondition:
    version ( IntegerLiteral )
    version ( Identifier )
    version ( unittest )
    version ( assert )

DebugCondition:
    debug
    debug ( IntegerLiteral )
    debug ( Identifier )

StaticIfCondition:
    static if ( AssignExpression )
VersionSpecification:
    version = Identifier ;
    version = IntegerLiteral ;

DebugSpecification:
    debug = Identifier ;
    debug = IntegerLiteral ;
StaticAssert:
    static assert ( AssignExpression );
    static assert ( AssignExpression , AssignExpression );

Module

Module:
    ModuleDeclaration DeclDefs
    DeclDefs

DeclDefs:
    DeclDef
    DeclDef DeclDefs

DeclDef:
    AttributeSpecifier
    Declaration
    Constructor
    Destructor
    Postblit
    Allocator
    Deallocator
    Invariant
    UnitTest
    AliasThis
    StaticConstructor
    StaticDestructor
    SharedStaticConstructor
    SharedStaticDestructor
    ConditionalDeclaration
    DebugSpecification
    VersionSpecification
    StaticAssert
    TemplateDeclaration
    TemplateMixinDeclaration
    TemplateMixin
    MixinDeclaration
    ;
ModuleDeclaration:
    module ModuleFullyQualifiedName ;

ModuleFullyQualifiedName:
    ModuleName
    Packages . ModuleName

ModuleName:
    Identifier

Packages:
    PackageName
    Packages . PackageName

PackageName:
    Identifier
ImportDeclaration:
    import ImportList ;
    static import ImportList ;

ImportList:
    Import
    ImportBindings
    Import , ImportList

Import:
    ModuleFullyQualifiedName
    ModuleAliasIdentifier = ModuleFullyQualifiedName

ImportBindings:
    Import : ImportBindList

ImportBindList:
    ImportBind
    ImportBind , ImportBindList

ImportBind:
    Identifier
    Identifier = Identifier

ModuleAliasIdentifier:
    Identifier
MixinDeclaration:
    mixin ( AssignExpression ) ;
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